Table 2 Genome-wide screen for potential mediators: famine exposure and BMI.
CpG characteristicsMediation EWASAssociations with either famine exposure or BMI*
CpGLocation (hg19)Nearest gene
(expression)
Methylation (SD)RankEWAS P§EWAS PFDRβfaminePfamineβBMIPBMIPrevious EWAS
cg00574958chr11:68607622CPT1A13.6 (2.6)16.7 × 10−142.3 × 10−8−0.20.19−4.01.7 × 10−16(33, 56, 72, 73)
cg06500161chr21:43656587ABCG165.9 (3.0)22.0 × 10−123.3 × 10−7−0.10.754.32.5 × 10−13(33, 43, 56, 73)
cg26950531chr19:38704515DPF132.5 (6.1)32.2 × 10−104.3 × 10−50.30.50−8.91.3 × 10−11(56)
cg11024682chr17:17730094SREBF153.2 (3.2)42.2 × 10−81.9 × 10−3−0.10.703.31.2 × 10−9(33, 43, 56)
cg09349128chr22:50327986CRELD239.0 (3.8)51.3 × 10−78.3 × 10−3−0.71.5 × 10−3−3.56.5 × 10−8(3336, 56)
cg09737197chr11:68607675CPT1A20.4 (4.6)61.5 × 10−78.3 × 10−3−0.40.093−4.43.2 × 10−9(33, 73)
cg23032421chr3:3152038IL5RA73.9 (4.1)72.1 × 10−70.01−0.30.18−3.45.8 × 10−9(33)
cg17058475chr11:68607737CPT1A16.1 (4.1)87.4 × 10−70.032−0.10.66−4.22.3 × 10−8(30, 56, 7274)
cg15659713chr8:38586183TACC124.6 (3.9)91.7 × 10−70.0641.31.7 × 10−7−0.40.63(28)
cg26199857chr12:54764265ZNF385A68.9 (5.7)145.2 × 10−70.132.03.1 × 10−71.30.28(28)

*The estimate and (nominal) P value belonging to the EWAS for famine exposure (β = exposed − unexposed) or BMI (β/log(BMI)).

†Nearest gene within 100 kb.

‡The Illumina 450k array β value (ranging from 0 to 1) multiplied by 100 for easy interpretation. This is done throughout the presented work.

§The P value belonging to an analysis of variance (ANOVA) test (χ2, df = 2) between a generalized estimating equations (GEE) model with and without both famine exposure and BMI.

¶The two CpGs identified in a previous EWAS on famine exposure (28).