Table 1 Endogenous retinoids in P. dumerilii.

Values are means ± SD. Serum values are pmol/g tissue. n.d., not detected. Developmental stages correspond to gastrulation at 18 hpf, the early metatrochophore larva at 51 hpf, and the early nectochaete larva at 74 hpf.

StageATRA9cRA13cRARetinolRetinyl esters
Unfertilized egg
(n = 4)
0.92 ± 0.74n.d.0.73 ± 0.4150 ± 31.25180 ± 68.66
Gastrulating protrochophore
(n = 2)
4.58 ± 0.16n.d.6.34 ± 2.21420 ± 2001000 ± 417.81
Early metatrochophore larva
(n = 9)
2.74 ± 1.52n.d.7.47 ± 4.63830 ± 489.341880 ± 1004.92
Early nectochaete larva
(n = 6)
3.39 ± 1.10n.d.2.53 ± 1.17300 ± 125.65900 ± 567.46
Adult worm
(n = 4)
38.3 ± 4.03n.d.46.8 ± 3.89878.5 ± 102.322170 ± 4581