Table 1 The standardized coefficients of effects transmitted from the GTGP and the GTBP to nonpayment income in 2005 through different livelihood activities and other unspecified processes.

The number of households included in the analysis is 202.

Crop productionCropland devoted for crop production in 2005−0.664***−0.563***
Tourism participationWhether the household has members who directly participated in tourism activities in 2005: 1. Yes; 0. No0.0580.142
Labor migrationWhether the household had labor migrants in 2005: 1. Yes; 0. No0.0090.048
Other unspecified
Other livelihood activities that are not observed in this study and/or other dimensions of the observed activities
(that is, crop production, tourism participation, and labor migration) that are not captured by their proxies above
TotalThe sum of all the effects transmitted through all the three livelihood activities and other unspecified processes−0.602*−0.850**

*P ≤ 0.05.

**P ≤ 0.01.

***P ≤ 0.001.

†The effect transmitted through unspecified processes is represented by the coefficient of the unspecified pathway.