Table 1 Ordered logit results.

OpenExch, open exchange is practiced in my field (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); Feedback, disclosing leads to valuable feedback (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); Acknowl, researchers use the results of others without acknowledgement (1 to 5, 5 = strongly disagree); ResCommer, choose research topics with commercial potential (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); LStartup, log of number of startups with respondent as founder or member, scientific advisory group; LPatentAp, log of number of patent applications; DIndustry, indicator equal to 1 if respondent has industry-funded research in the past 3 years; CompOverall, perception of overall competition (1 to 5, 5 = very competitive); CompPub, perception of competition to publish or present new results (1 to 5, 5 = very competitive); CompGovFnd, perception of competition for government research funding (1 to 5, 5 = very competitive); CompStudents, perception of competition for students or post docs (1 to 5, 5 = very competitive); ResFunded, choose research depending on how likely to get funded (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); HighEsteem, first to come up with a result is highly esteemed by peers (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); GrpWW, number of competing groups worldwide (capped at 51); GrpWWTrust, number of competing groups worldwide with trusted colleagues; GrpWWCollab, number of competing groups worldwide with collaborators; DetectEasy, easy to detect failure to acknowledge (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); ResLeader, my research group is considered to be among the leaders in the field (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); Lpubs, log of number of publications in the past 5 years; Lcites, log of number of citations in the past 5 years; NSF_DFG, indicator = 1 if NSF or DFG funding; DFG, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the German Research Foundation; NIH_EC, indicator = 1 if NIH or EC funding; EC, European Commission; OtherGovFnd, indicator = 1 if other government funding; OtherFnd, indicator = 1 if funding other than government or industry; ResBasic, my research is basic (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); ResInterd, my research area is interdisciplinary (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); ResRealW, my research is driven by real-world problems, with or without commercial potential (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); ResReput, my reputation among academics is important to me (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); Assistant, indicator = 1 if assistant professor; Associate, indicator =1 if associate professor; Male, indicator = 1 if male; Age, respondent age; AgeSq, square of age; NumGroup, number of full-time researchers in research group; NumReport, number of researchers who report directly to respondent; Migrant, indicator = 1 if not working in country of birth; BirthDevelop, indicator = 1 if birth country developed.

Part aPart b
Odds ratiot statisticPOdds ratiot statisticP
NormsOpenExch1.1082.790.0051.1032.760.006
Feedback1.2485.140.0001.2505.350.000
Acknowl1.0953.220.0011.0983.430.001
CommercialResCommer0.779−8.130.0000.779−8.40.000
LStartup0.890−1.370.1700.869−1.700.089
LPatentAp0.762−5.480.0000.770−5.460.000
DIndustry0.760−3.390.0010.779−3.200.001
CompetitionCompOverall*1.0070.140.887
CompPub0.845−3.800.0000.851−4.880.000
CompGovFnd1.0701.570.1161.0842.060.039
CompStudents*1.0200.580.559
ResFunded0.895−3.570.0000.889−3.960.000
HighEsteem0.872−3.290.0010.876−3.310.001
GrpWW0.992−3.790.0000.993−3.660.000
OtherGrpWWTrust1.0447.180.0001.0467.510.000
GrpWWCollab0.973−2.420.0150.970−2.770.006
DetectEasy*1.0000.010.995
ResLeader1.1153.070.0021.0962.830.005
Lpubs*1.0140.200.845
Lcites*0.987−0.330.739
NSF_DFG1.1972.580.011.1982.710.007
NIH_EC*0.965−0.470.638
OtherGovFnd0.862−2.210.0270.888−1.840.066
OtherFnd*0.995−0.080.936
ResBasic1.0421.540.1231.0471.820.068
ResInterd*1.0080.220.826
ResRealW1.0561.830.0671.0612.10.036
ResReput*0.998−0.040.965
Assistant0.685−2.960.0030.678−3.270.001
Associate0.869−1.570.1170.842−2.030.043
Male1.0791.060.2911.0510.710.475
Age0.964−1.400.1620.958−1.660.096
AgeSq1.0001.470.1421.0001.740.081
NumGroup*1.0020.650.515
NumReport*1.0020.520.606
Migrant0.860−1.860.0630.859−2.270.023
BirthDevelop*1.0580.480.628
SumResAreas1.0351.340.1811.0321.420.155
USSample1.7104.910.0001.6935.050.000
Field fixed effectsYesYes
Number obs42474445
Pseudo R-sq0.0840.082

*Variable is dropped from original regression due to t statistic less than 1 in absolute value.