Table 1 Difference-in-difference estimate of the effect of mandatory labeling from multiple regressions.

Numbers in parentheses are SEs. “After labels” is a variable that takes the value of 1 for responses from dates after July 2017 and 0 for dates before this time period, and “Vermont” is a variable that takes the value of 1 for responses from Vermont and 0 for responses from all other states.

VariableModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 4Model 5
Intercept3.229** (0.023)3.122** (0.069)3.081** (0.073)3.156** (0.076)3.172** (0.078)
After labels0.045 (0.036)0.017 (0.036)−0.048 (0.054)0.074 (0.061)0.060 (0.066)
Vermont0.625** (0.038)0.653** (0.042)0.651** (0.042)0.441** (0.066)0.417** (0.068)
After labels × Vermont−0.282** (0.062)−0.264** (0.061)−0.262** (0.061)−0.594** (0.102)−0.579** (0.105)
DemographicsNoYesYesYesYes
Overall trendNoNoYesNoNo
Location-specific trendsNoNoNoYesYes
Exclude states near VermontNoNoNoNoYes
R20.040.0760.0760.0780.081
N78717871787178717171

**P ≤ 0.01 (statistically significant).

†The coefficient associated with the interaction of the location and time dummy variables is the difference-in-difference estimate, the difference in opposition to GE in Vermont and opposition to GE in the rest of the United States after labels appeared minus the opposition to GE in Vermont and opposition to GE in the rest of the United States before labels.