Table 1 Experimental design.

Global gridded crop model versions used in this study are characterized regarding assumptions on irrigation, phenological heat units (PHU), and sowing dates; see Materials and Methods for details.

Model (code reference)Irrigation assumptionsPhenology assumptions
LPJmL–Ref (37)Reference irrigation: Full, that is, unconstrained
irrigation on irrigated land, rainfed conditions
in rainfed systems
Reference phenology: semistatic global PHU parameter
not based on observations; sowing dates internally
derived from climate conditions
LPJmL–WaterLimIrr (38)Advanced irrigation: Mechanistic representation
of irrigation systems and surface water availability
Same as above
LPJmL–PHU (this study)Same as aboveSpatially derived PHU requirements per crop and
grid cell to match targeted growing seasons;
sowing dates prescribed according to observational
data and model simulations
LPJmL–NoWaterStress (37)Full irrigation: No water stress in rainfed
or irrigated systems
Same as LPJmL–Ref