Table 1 Defining antibiotic responses.

Each row represents a different response to an antibiotic delivered at time zero. In the first row, all individual cells can withstand the antibiotic, which results in the population growing to carrying capacity, unperturbed. In the second row, only a subpopulation of cells is killed. This result manifests as an initial decline in the population density followed by full recovery, after the antibiotic is removed in the allotted time. A third scenario entails a greater sensitivity compared with the second scenario, due to greater sensitivity of individual cells or lower capability of the population in removing the antibiotic. In this case, the population only partially recovers during the allotted time after the initial decline. In the final row, all cells are killed, leading to the population extinction. Currently, antibiotic sensitivity analyses only consider whether bacteria can recover from a set dose of antibiotic in a standard period (red dot). Bacteria that display full recovery are considered resistant, partial recovery are intermediate, and no recovery are sensitive. However, temporal dynamics (blue curve) reveal differences in how a population recovers. Living cells, blue; dead cells, gray.


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