Table 1 The existing traditional chronology for the Iroquoian region of south-central Ontario up to the contact era in the second millennium CE [(14, 13, 14, 17, 18); see the Supplementary Materials].
Traditional chronologyArcheological phasesSociocultural characteristics and key events
1000–1300Early IroquoianSettlement is in base camps by seasonally mobile populations; limited agriculture.
1300–1350Middle IroquoianSmall villages, initiation of widespread interaction networks. Migration of early farming communitie
to the north and east.
1350–1400Small- to medium-sized, dispersed villages, extensive interregional interaction.
1400–1450Late IroquoianPrecoalescent; small villages clustered in major drainages.
1450–1500Coalescence; formative aggregate towns, palisaded, with multiple palisade expansions. Some small
villages remain. Internal conflict within the region.
1500–1550Postcoalescent; initial nation formation. Consolidated aggregate towns. All settlements are palisaded,
no evidence for expansions. Internal conflict in decline. Interregional interaction increases.
1550–1600ProtohistoricConsolidation of nations. Consolidated aggregate towns (north shore of Lake Ontario), smaller, often
unpalisaded village settlements (historic Wendake). Initiation of external conflict. First appearance
of European-manufactured metals and glass beads (GBP I, ca. 1580–1600).
1600–1650Contact eraConsolidation of Wendat confederacy. Population clusters in historic Wendake. Consolidated
aggregate towns (southern Wendake), smaller village settlements (northern Wendake).
Intensification of external conflict. Direct European contact, ca. 1608 (Etienne Brule); ca. 1615
(Champlain); ca. 1630s Jesuit presence increases. In 1650, the Wendat were dispersed by the
Haudenosaunee (Iroquois). Extensive presence and diversification of European-manufactured
metals and glass beads (GBP II, ca. 1600–1615/1620, GBP III ca. 1615/1620–1650).