Table 1 Drug mechanism(s) of action.

This table provides a summary of how different drugs used in this study modulate neurotransmission. The drug name is listed on the left, potential targets of each drug are listed in the middle, and references for more in-depth descriptions are provided on the right. NMDAR, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor; 5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine; K2P, two-pore potassium; HCN, hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated.

DrugMechanism of actionReferences
KetamineNMDAR antagonist(32, 33)
Xylazineα2-Adrenergic
receptor agonist
(32, 34, 35)
PentobarbitalPositive allosteric
modulator of GABAA
chloride channels
(32, 36)
α-ChloralosePositive allosteric
modulator of GABAA
chloride channels
(32, 37, 38)
Avertin(2,2,2-
tribromoethanol)
Unclear. Potential:
agonist for GABAA
and glycine receptors,
negative allosteric
modulator for
dopaminergic, 5-HT,
opioid, muscarinic,
and adrenergic
receptors
(32, 37)
IsofluranePositive allosteric
modulator of GABAA
chloride channels;
NMDAR, K2P channel,
and HCN channel
antagonist
(37, 39, 40)
DexmedetomidineMore potent and
more selective
α2-adrenergic
receptor agonist than
xylazine
(32, 35)