Table 1 Photovoltaic parameters of the PSCs using different perovskite layers prepared with various compositions and ink formulations under 1-sun illumination (AM1.5G, 100 mW cm−2).

Note that CFM has an optical bandgap of 1.51 eV, MAPbI3 has an optical bandgap of 1.55 eV, and CFPbIBr has an optical bandgap of 1.82 eV. The optical bandgap of perovskite with different composition is determined from the external quantum efficiency (EQE) spectrum edge in figs. S11 to S13. Data for average PCE (η) were calculated from at least 30 devices. CFM represents Cs0.05FA0.70MA0.25PbI3 and CFPbIBr represents Cs0.2FA0.8Pb(I0.6Br0.4)3 (see details in Materials and Methods section).

(mA cm−2)
Average η
Voc deficit
CFM23.41.0617.015.02 ± 0.7868.40.45
CFM-DAP23.41.1621.520.36 ± 0.4679.40.35
MAPbI322.01.0818.316.45 ± 0.4077.20.47
MAPbI3-DAP22.51.1821.720.53 ± 0.3881.70.37
MAPbI3-DAP (1.1 cm2)22.01.1420.018.24 ± 0.6580.0N/A
CFPbIBr15.11.1813.111.78 ± 0.5773.30.64
CFPbIBr-DAP15.61.2615.213.87 ± 0.4977.50.56