Table 4 Anthropometric, iron, and inflammatory variables of the Ghanaian children (n = 26), assessed before first meal administration.

Values are means ± SD if not otherwise stated. Vitamin A deficiency defined as RBP < 0.7 μM.

Sex (female), %42
Age, years7.6 ± 1.3
Weight, kg22 ± 3.6
Height, cm115 ± 9.3
Weight for age, Z score−1.3 ± 0.81
Height for age, Z score−1.2 ± 0.96
Body mass index for age, Z score−0.7 ± 0.65
Zinc protoporphyrin/heme ratio*,
μmol/mol
52.0 (44.6–59.5)
Hemoglobin, g/liter112 ± 9
Plasma ferritin*, μg/liter43.6 (32.5–58.4)
Body iron stores, mg/kg body
weight
4.2 ± 0.70
Soluble transferrin receptor*,
mg/liter
8.8 (7.75–10.05)
Hepcidin*, nM12.0 (7.4–19.1)
Iron-deficient, non-anemic,
prevalence, n (%)
4 (15)
Anemia‡,§ prevalence, n (%)15 (58)
  Non-IDA5 (19)
  IDA10 (39)
Retinol binding protein, μM0.79 ± 0.19
Vitamin A deficiency prevalence,
n (%)
8 (24)
C-reactive protein >5 mg/liter,
prevalence, n (%)
3 (12)
α1-Acid glycoprotein >1 g/liter,
prevalence, n (%)
6 (23)
Positive malaria by microscopy,
prevalence, n (%)
11 (42)

*Values are geometric means (95% CI).

†ID defined as sTfR >8.3 mg/liter and/or plasma ferritin <30 μg/liter.

‡Anemia was defined as Hb <115 g/liter.

§IDA defined as sTfR >8.3 mg/liter and/or plasma ferritin <30 μg/liter in combination with Hb <115 g/liter.