Table 2 Novel iron compounds screened for suitability for rice fortification using a premix approach.

Rice was fortified with Fe (5 mg/g).

Iron compounds used for fortificationΔE to basmati rice*
Fe glycinate taste free38.8
Fe (III) tartrate 1 hydrate36.1
Fe (II) bisglycinate27.1
Fe (II) succinate11.4
Fe (II) ammonium phosphate6.73
Soluble FePP17.4
Soluble FePP (III) + citrate10.8
FeSO4 + CA + TSC20.1

*Color differences relative to unfortified basmati rice. ΔE values of ≥13 were distinguishable from unfortified basmati rice. In previous studies, rices with ΔE in the range of 5.1 to 6.7 compared to basmati rice were undistinguishable from unfortified basmati rice in triangle tests (20).