Table 1 Hypergolic properties of herein explored ZIFs and corresponding ligands in drop tests using WFNA and RFNA as oxidizers.

Each test was conducted in triplicate.

FuelDrop test with WFNADrop test with RFNA
ID (ms)Flame
duration (ms)
Flame
height* (cm)
Flame colorID (ms)Flame
duration (ms)
Flame
height* (cm)
Flame color
Zn(AIm)22(1), 4(1)>6004Red, blue12(2)<1504Red, blue
Co(AIm)22(1), 2(1)>2004Orange7(2), 10(2)>2005Orange
Cd(AIm)25(1), 3(2)>2006Yellow30(2)<1504Orange
Zn(VIm)229(1)SparksSparksRedSmoke
Co(VIm)211(5)>2002Orange164§SparksOrange
Cd(VIm)235(1)SparksSparksYellowSmoke
ZIF-8
Zn(EtIm)2
HAIm34(4)>1007RedSmoke
HVIm34(2)SparksSparksRedSmoke

*Approximate values.

†Sample made from solution.

‡No ignition.

§Ignited in only one of three tests.

‖RHO topology framework.