Table 3 Enabling policies, milestones, and targets to reduce major threats and drivers of change.

Enabling policies to reduce threats and drivers
Feature2018 BenchmarkMilestone for 2030Target outcome for 2050References
Agricultural
expansion
Cropland covers at least 12% of
the planet’s ice-free surface;
the expected range of
cropland expansion is
123–495 Mha per annum
(i) Expansion of agro-commodity
production and supporting roads and
settlements is moved to degraded or
previously converted areas such that
range of cropland expansion into
natural areas is halved from
2020 levels.
(ii) Priority biodiversity and biospheric
areas are experiencing no net loss of
habitat due to agricultural expansion.
(iii) Targets established and met for
increase in per ha productivity
No loss of natural habitat for
commercial agro-commodity
production and sourcing
is occurring
(9496)
RoadsAt least 25 million km of new
roads projected by 2050
(a 60% increase in the total
length of roads over that in
2010); 70% of the world’s
forests are less than 1 km from
a forest edge
(i) Transnational transport corridor
projects that will affect priority
biodiversity and biosphere function
target areas are subject to
international oversight of strategic
road planning that minimizes impacts
on biodiversity and biosphere
function targets.
(ii) Top 50 planned road networks or
improvements that would directly
affect priority biodiversity and
biosphere function habitats and
regions are not eligible for
international financing.
(iii) International financing is predicated
on ensuring overpasses and
underpasses in engineering designs
to ensure integration of social and
ecological connectivity
All transnational transport corridor
projects that can affect priority
biodiversity and biosphere function
target areas are subject to
international oversight of strategic
road planning that minimizes
impacts on biodiversity and
biosphere function targets. All
planned road networks or
improvements that would directly
affect priority biodiversity and
biosphere function habitats and
regions are not eligible for
international financing
(78, 79, 97)
Dams, barrages,
channelizations
More than 800,000 dams and
45,000+ large dams exist;
more than half the world’s
rivers blocked by large dams,
thousands of smaller dams
being planned
(i) No further planning or building of
large- to medium-sized dams on the
world’s rivers
(ii) Maintain two-thirds of all headwaters
of the Earth’s major river systems
undammed by 2030 through
protection and removal of blocking
infrastructure
Restoration of 25% of the world’s rivers
to free-flowing state by 2050
through removal of dams and
barrages
(57, 93, 98)
OverfishingThe global marine catch peaked
in 1996 and has been
declining since, with more
than 30% of fisheries
collapsed; more than
1000 species threatened with
extinction due to fishing
(i) Subsidies that contribute to
overcapacity and overfishing
are eliminated
(ii) Global fishing capacity cut in half
(iii) Regional Fisheries Management
Organizations reformed and made
accountable to a new independent
global fisheries agency
(i) End of overfishing
(ii) All commercial fisheries
management is science based and
sustainable and is based on
access rights
(iii) Sustainable aquaculture based on
non-fish feed has replaced half of
the marine catch
(24, 81, 99, 100)
Wildlife tradeOverexploitation affects
three-fourths of threatened
species; wildlife products are
legally traded internationally
at volumes of an average of
100 million whole organism
equivalents per year over the
past 10 years
(i) Sport and commercial hunting of
threatened terrestrial, marine, and
freshwater animals and parts are
banned nationally and internationally
(ii) Agreements in place to prohibit
international trade/sale/transport for
commercial purposes of all
wild-caught threatened species
(i) Global ban in international transport
for commercial purposes of all
wildlife species and threatened
plant taxa
(ii) Global legislation and enforcement
banning any trade in
threatened species
(iii) Legal trade volumes considered
sustainable for all species
(9, 100, 101)
Invasive species~17,000+ invasive species
documented
(i) Solidify gains in the Actions and
Milestones of Aichi Target 9 invasive
alien species prevented and
controlled, namely, “By 2020, invasive
alien species and pathways are
identified and prioritized, priority
species are controlled or eradicated,
and measures are in place to manage
pathways to prevent their
introduction and establishment.”
(ii) Control of top plant or animal
invasive species in 100 global
priority islands
(i) Solidify gains in the Actions and
Milestones of Aichi Target 9 Invasive
alien species prevented and
controlled, namely, “By 2020,
invasive alien species and pathways
are identified and prioritized,
priority species are controlled or
eradicated, and measures are in
place to manage pathways to
prevent their introduction and
establishment.”
(ii) Control of top plant or animal
invasive species in 200 global
priority islands
(84, 100)
PlasticsThe amount of plastic making its
way into the oceans is
predicted to increase from
9 million metric tons in 2015 to
16 million metric tons in 2025
Global ban on all nonrecyclable,
single-use plastics; recycling of 30% of
the world’s plastics
To achieve the SDG target to “prevent
and significantly reduce marine
pollution” by 2025, the world needs to
move from our current “linear
economy” (make, use, dispose) to a
circular economy in which resources
do not become waste but instead are
recovered and regenerated at the end
of each service life. Government
should embed the circular economy
into national strategies
Global ban on all single-use plastics;
recycling of 50% of the
world’s plastics
(85, 86, 102)
ToxinsCurrent widespread use of
ecologically damaging toxins
occurs, causing massive
declines in global pollinators,
invertebrate biomass,
and degradation of
aquatic ecosystems
The most ecologically damaging classes
of commercial toxins (e.g., certain
pesticides, herbicides, nematocides,
and fungicides, especially those that
kill pollinators, poison freshwaters,
and sterilize soils) no longer
produced, sold, or used globally
Global program to monitor and
enforce no production, sale, and use
of most ecologically damaging
toxins, including testing newly
developed commercial toxins
(103)
Ozone-depleting
chemicals
The Montreal Protocol on
Substances that Deplete the
Ozone Layer currently
regulates ozone-depleting
chemicals
A global ban on production and use of
ozone-depleting chemicals effectively
enforced
(104)