Table 1 Vertebral phenotypes of Isle Royale wolves.

Six individuals were examined for vertebral defects, and their phenotypes are listed. The skeletal remains of the other Isle Royale wolves sequenced in this study (F25, F55, M62, F67, and M141) were not recovered and were therefore unavailable for examination. LSTV, lumbosacral transitional vertebra; SCTV, sacrococcygeal transitional vertebra; TLTV, thoracolumbar transitional vertebra; N/A, not applicable.

IDVertebrae
examined
PhenotypeOther
observations
M61Atlas-SacrumNo
abnormalities
N/A
F65Atlas-T12,
L1-Co3
Minor
phenotypic
LSTV
One thoracic
vertebra
missing from
collection
F75Atlas-Co16LSTV, TLTV,
SCTV, two extra
ribs,
osteophytes
All of F75 pups
had an extra
presacral
vertebra, seven
of the eight
pups had extra
ribs
M152Atlas-SacrumTLTV, SCTV,
extra rib,
osteophytes
N/A
M175Atlas-Co9LSTV, TLTV,
SCTV,
asymmetry at
Co2,
osteophytes
Some ribs are
missing from
collection
F189Atlas-Co2TLTV, extra
vertebra, SCTV,
cervical
intrasegmental
transitional and
asymmetry
Some ribs are
missing from
collection. The
cervical
malformation is
the same type
observed in
specimen 3529
[see fig. 3 of
(8)].