Table 1 Photovoltaic parameters of 3D/2D and 3D PSCs (measured under simulated AM 1.5G solar irradiance at 100 mW cm−2).

PSCVOC (V)FF (%)JSC (mA cm−2)PCE (%)PCEMPP* (%)
3D/2D1.096 (1.095)78.4 (76.9)25.79 (25.81)22.16 (21.70)22.09
3D1.045 (1.036)77.5 (75.1)25.47(25.47)20.62 (19.74)19.97

*MPP tracking. The efficiencies are recorded after 140-s MPP tracking.

†The brackets indicate the average values of 25 PSC devices.