Table 1 Drag results.

Results of CFD simulations for single- and multiple-model simulations of Ernietta, varying the current velocity (0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m/s), burial depth (shallow, moderate, and deep), and orientation with respect to flow (parallel and perpendicular).

Density of fluid
(kg/m3)
Dynamic viscosity of fluid [kg/(s·m)]
10000.001
ModelBurial
depth
OrientationCharacteristic
dimension (m)
Reference
area (m2)
Velocity
(m/s)
Reynolds
number
Drag force (N)Drag coefficient
Single individualShallowParallel0.0590.00320.105,9000.011154987172309900.697186698269369
0.2011,8000.044351560481051200.692993132516425
0.5029,5000.274513914324550000.686284785811375
ShallowPerpendicular0.0640.00380.106,4000.016405267277307900.863435119858310
0.2012,8000.065561319751674600.862648944100981
0.5032,0000.405470979696828000.853623115151217
ModerateParallel0.0590.00240.105,9000.007809890114919700.650824176243308
0.2011,8000.030954507388134100.644885570586127
0.5029,5000.191483276411148000.638277588037160
ModeratePerpendicular0.0640.00280.106,4000.010975943502183700.783995964441693
0.2012,8000.043851773268398200.783067379792825
0.5032,0000.272179763181450000.777656466232714
DeepParallel0.0590.00160.105,9000.005102216379739060.637777047467382
0.2011,8000.020028243222075400.625882600689856
0.5029,5000.122402450334369000.612012251671845
DeepPerpendicular0.0640.00180.106,4000.006655689768024390.739521085336043
0.2012,8000.026597426145657300.738817392934925
0.5032,0000.164184476809405000.729708785819578
Four individuals
  Top leftModerateParallel0.0590.00240.2011,8000.03371075116422320.702307315921317
  Bottom leftModerateParallel0.0590.00240.2011,8000.03362495512399880.700519898416642
  Top rightModerateParallel0.0590.00240.2011,8000.00394174691986830.082119727497256
  Bottom rightModerateParallel0.0590.00240.2011,8000.00303755635066140.063282423972112
Four individuals
  Top leftModeratePerpendicular0.0640.00280.2012,8000.05044362211848450.900778966401509
  Bottom leftModeratePerpendicular0.0640.00280.2012,8000.04913648093919650.877437159628509
  Top rightModeratePerpendicular0.0640.00280.2012,800−0.0008403062351596−0.015005468484993
  Bottom rightModeratePerpendicular0.0640.00280.2012,800−0.0056891902315857−0.101592682706888
Four individuals
  Top leftModeratePerpendicular0.0640.00280.2012,8000.04987900595373120.890696534888057
  Bottom leftModerateParallel0.0590.00240.2011,8000.03329947150361730.693738989658694
  Top rightModerateParallel0.0590.00240.2011,800−0.0011524043075931−0.024008423074855
  Bottom rightModeratePerpendicular0.0640.00280.2012,8000.00436428749776300.077933705317196
Four individuals, clumped
  Top leftModerateParallel0.0590.00240.2011,8000.04260601033288620.887625215268462
  Bottom leftModerateParallel0.0590.00240.2011,8000.04261960853208310.887908511085065
  Top rightModerateParallel0.0590.00240.2011,800−0.0074879970079540−0.155999937665708
  Bottom rightModerateParallel0.0590.00240.2011,800−0.0027149188517437−0.056560809411327
Four individuals, clumped
  Top leftModeratePerpendicular0.0640.00280.2012,8000.05800706142386711.035840382569060
  Bottom leftModeratePerpendicular0.0640.00280.2012,8000.05654830856717461.009791224413830
  Top rightModeratePerpendicular0.0640.00280.2012,800−0.0085171293959361−0.152091596356002
  Bottom rightModeratePerpendicular0.0640.00280.2012,800−0.0084508226386397−0.150907547118565
Four individuals, clumped
  Top leftModeratePerpendicular0.0640.00280.2012,8000.05805102549587071.036625455283410
  Bottom leftModerateParallel0.0590.00240.2011,8000.04186991753058860.872289948553929
  Top rightModerateParallel0.0590.00240.2011,800−0.0040699100616795−0.084789792951656
  Bottom rightModeratePerpendicular0.0640.00280.2012,800−0.0071175827072387−0.127099691200690
Five individuals
  Top leftModeratePerpendicular0.0640.00280.2012,8000.04912172296810630.877173624430470
  Bottom leftModerateParallel0.0590.00240.2011,8000.03283103844364750.683979967575990
  Top rightModerateParallel0.0590.00240.2011,8000.02618734151358670.545569614866390
  Middle rightModeratePerpendicular0.0640.00280.2012,8000.01616360123185850.288635736283187
  Bottom rightModerateParallel0.0590.00240.2011,8000.02752102685588870.573354726164348