Table 2 Psychometric indicators by database.

Datasets, psychometric measures, and different datasets and subsamples are described in detail in the main text and Supplementary Materials. All calculations were done after correcting for acquiescence bias. Within correlation, between correlation, Cronbach’s alpha, and congruence coefficient are first calculated by dataset before calculating a nonweighted average across all datasets. See table S6 for calculations for each dataset separately. In the case of within correlation, Cronbach’s alpha, and congruence coefficient, for each dataset, we first calculate it by PT and then average it across PT (before averaging across datasets).

No. of
No. of
No. of
alpha (avg.
of 5 PTs)
coeff. (avg.
of 5 PTs)
Restricting each dataset to the 15 items available in step surveys
STEP surveys151440,5840.260.090.490.73
Other survey data15914,0510.170.080.350.71
All survey data (that have the 15 STEP items)152354,6350.220.090.440.73
Internet data1514198,3560.320.090.570.90
U.S. data1516420.450.100.70-
Using all items available in each dataset
All survey data10 to 442994,7510.230.100.510.72
Survey data with 44 items4466,0170.170.110.620.67
Internet data4414198,3560.300.090.770.89
U.S. data4416420.400.090.85-
Subsample of respondents
STEP surveys (tertiary education)15149,7470.260.090.490.73
Internet data (number of observations ≤ STEP)151429,5280.320.090.570.87
Internet data (age 26 to 48)151450,6220.330.100.570.89