Table 1 Congruence, factor structures obtained by PCA, and comparison with theoretical scale.

Congruence coefficient (first column) is a proxy for the similarity of the factor structure, obtained from the correlation between factor loadings between two samples (in this case, the sample of the corresponding line is compared to factor loadings of the U.S. data). A detailed description of the calculation of the congruence coefficient is provided in Materials and Methods. In the rest of the table, each column represents one item (the same across datasets), sorted by PTs, and an “R” in its name means that it is a reverse-coded item (see Supplementary Materials section 1.1 for the phrasing of each item). The number that appears in each cell indicates for which factor the item has the highest factor loading in the PCA (with Procrustes rotation on U.S. data). Cell entries are in red bold font when the factor with highest loading differs from the one that the item aims to measure. For other surveys, only identifiers are provided to preserve anonymity. All data were corrected for acquiescence bias before the analysis.

U.S. data
Congruence
coefficient
OpennessConscientiousnessExtraversionAgreeablenessEmot. stability
O1O2O3C1C2RC3E1E2RE3A1A2A3ES1RES2ES3R
U.S. data1111222333444555
STEP survey data
Congruence
coefficient
OpennessConscientiousnessExtraversionAgreeablenessEmot. stability
O1O2O3C1C2RC3E1E2RE3A1A2A3ES1RES2ES3R
Ghana0.68411124333111555
Kenya0.71214221333444555
Sri Lanka0.71211121331444555
Yunnan0.75114222333144555
Laos0.70113421134444555
Vietnam0.69111222433431555
Philippines0.59311424331324455
Bolivia0.84111222333444555
Colombia0.72324212333444555
Macedonia0.67114111333444525
Serbia0.79111224333444555
Ukraine0.81211242333411555
Georgia0.77311122313441555
Armenia0.82111122333441555
Average0.73
Other survey data
Congruence
coefficient
OpennessConscientiousnessExtraversionAgreeablenessEmot. stability
O1O2O3C1C2RC3E1E2RE3A1A2A3ES1RES2ES3R
D10.78211222332454555
D20.69235212333444515
D30.92111222333444555
D40.60344324334114515
D50.67211124331444555
D60.68211223235144555
D70.66111244233454552
D80.71211525333254542
D90.73112242333144555
Average0.71
Internet data
Congruence
coefficient
OpennessConscientiousnessExtraversionAgreeablenessEmot. stability
O1O2O3C1C2RC3E1E2RE3A1A2A3ES1RES2ES3R
Ghana0.97111222333444555
Kenya0.86111222333444555
Sri Lanka0.64312222333212555
China0.98111222333444555
Laos0.81115222333445555
Vietnam0.98111222333444555
Philippines0.85111242333444555
Bolivia0.94111222333444555
Colombia0.97111222333444555
Macedonia0.76111222343444555
Serbia0.98111222333444555
Ukraine0.98111222333444555
Georgia0.90111222333444555
Armenia0.97111222333444555
Average0.90