Table 1 Characteristic comparisons of the new wood membranes and commercial polymeric membranes.

LEP, liquid entry pressure; ECTFE, ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene.

MembraneManufacturerActive
layer
Support
material
Pore size
(μm)
Thickness
(μm)
Porosity
(%)
Contact
angle (°)
LEP
(kPa)
Intrinsic
permeability
(×10−10 kg m−1
s−1 Pa−1)
Thermal
conductivity
(W m−1 K−1)*
Thermal
efficiency
(%)
Reference
ECTFE3MECTFE0.4346671180.39~0.034~60(22)
0.45PP3MPP0.79110851300.950.048~58(22)
QM902ClarcorePTFE0.4570-85~51(22)
2400CelgardPP0.04325411380.020.111<3(22)
0.22PPTischPP1.79 ± 0.10§196 ± 1872 ± 311942.7 ± 0.30.64 ± 0.020.06644 ± 1This study
0.45PPTischPP2.65 ± 0.24§175 ± 472 ± 112538.6 ± 0.50.68 ± 0.040.06639 ± 3This study
0.22PTFETischPTFEPP0.33 ± 0.00§188 ± 575 ± 4121126 ± 21.21 ± 0.220.08253 ± 0This study
0.45 PTFETischPTFEPP0.36 ± 0.00§156 ± 1178 ± 2117133 ± 51.15 ± 0.210.07559 ± 2This study
Natural
wood
Cellulose0.18 ± 0.02§540 ± 1521 ± 314298.5 ± 0.80.20 ± 0.040.21012 ± 2This study
NanowoodCellulose0.28 ± 0.03§502 ± 3589 ± 314474.7 ± 0.51.44 ± 0.090.040ǁ71 ± 2This study

*The theoretical values were based on the assumption of isotropic thermal property (in this table and section S12) (39, 47, 59). However, the real nanowood is anisotropic with a measured, while the anisotropic thermal conductivity in x (fiber growth direction), y, and z (transverse direction) directions was 0.060, 0.030, and 0.030 W m−1 K−1, respectively.

†The experimental feed temperature and distillate temperature were 60° and 20°C, respectively.

‡Nominal pore size.

§Averaged pore size.

ǁTheoretical thermal conductivity at room temperature.