Table 1 The FPN Q248H mutation is associated with protection from anemia, hemolysis, and iron deficiency in community-based children.

Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and country. CRP, C-reactive protein; MCV, mean corpuscular volume; sTfR, soluble transferrin receptor; TSAT, transferrin saturation; ZPP, zinc protoporphyrin.

Q248H*WT
CategoryAll, nQ248H, nn (%)WT, nn (%)OR (95% CI)P
Anemia2666237111 (46.8)24291305 (53.7)0.75 (0.57 to 0.98)0.037
Iron deficiency306532598 (30.2)2740933 (34.1)0.77 (0.60 to 0.99)0.046
Iron deficiency anemia§236320835 (16.8)2155435 (20.2)0.77 (0.52 to 1.14)0.19
Inflammation314933466 (19.8)2815587 (20.9)0.94 (0.70 to 1.25)0.65
BiomarkersAll, nQ248H, nGeometric mean (SD)WT, nGeometric mean (SD)Estimate
(95% CI)
P
Hemoglobin, g/dl266623710.81 (1.15)242910.59 (1.16)0.21 (0.01 to 0.40)0.036
MCHC, g/dl153713133.10 (1.04)140632.87 (1.04)0.27 (0.05 to 0.50)0.017
MCV, fL232420572.98 (1.12)211972.76 (1.12)0.16 (−0.87 to 1.19)0.76
Haptoglobin, μmol/liter58750133.22 (1.98)537109.32 (1.87)0.20 (0.02 to 0.38)0.030
Ferritin, μg/liter306532520.80 (2.53)274020.03 (2.84)0.08 (−0.03 to 0.20)0.16
Hepcidin, μg/liter30803198.31 (3.48)27617.33 (3.87)0.14 (−0.02 to 0.30)0.089
sTfR, mg/liter309132511.98 (1.66)276613.30 (1.67)−0.07 (−0.16 to 0.01)0.088
Iron, μmol/liter459455.45 (1.91)4144.83 (2.35)0.14 (−0.10 to 0.37)0.25
Transferrin, g/liter23802582.62 (1.28)21222.70 (1.27)−0.06 (−0.14 to 0.02)0.14
TSAT, %430407.89 (2.13)3906.95 (2.62)0.09 (−0.18 to 0.36)0.52
ZPP, μmol/mol heme6846697.43 (1.80)618114.63 (1.77)−0.17 (−0.31 to −0.03)0.018
CRP, mg/liter24032631.08 (5.07)21401.35 (5.44)−0.19 (−0.41 to 0.02)0.079
ACT, g/liter737680.47 (1.34)6690.44 (1.30)0.05 (−0.01 to 0.12)0.12

*Heterozygotes and homozygotes.

†Anemia was defined as hemoglobin <11 g/dl.

‡Iron deficiency was defined as plasma ferritin <12 or <30 μg/liter in the presence of inflammation in children <5 years or <15 μg/liter in children ≥5 years.

§Iron deficiency anemia was defined as iron deficiency with anemia.

║Inflammation was defined as C-reactive protein >5 mg/liter or ACT >0.6 g/liter in The Gambia.