Table 2 Comparison of measurements of the DP5 of Denisova 3 with those of Neanderthals and Pleistocene and recent AMHs.

Measurements of the Denisova 3 DP5 (DEN 3_DP5; in mm) based on (i) the images taken under a stereomicroscope for PH, PAH, PAB, MH, DH, and DB; (ii) the 2D reconstruction shown in Fig. 3 for ML; and (iii) the 3D virtual reconstruction for PB, and compared with the means and ranges of the comparative samples. ML, maximal length; PH, proximal height; PAH, proximal articular height; PB, proximal breadth; PAB, proximal articular breadth; MH, midshaft height; MB, midshaft breadth; DB, distal breadth; DH, distal height; m, mean; s, SD; n, number; +95, upper limit of 95% of the estimated population based on the sample size; −95, lower limit of 95% of the estimated population based on the sample size. MH_DP, value for the pooled sample of Pleistocene and recent AMH distal phalanges; NEAND_DP, value for the Neanderthal sample of distal phalanges; DP5s, fifth distal phalanges only.

MLPHPAHPBPABMHMBDHDB
DEN 3–DP515.945.003.737.006.363.343.602.804.52
NEAND_DPm20.356.755.6411.6110.034.076.274.219.57
s1.811.110.691.561.210.530.990.651.9
n535852584760604761
+9519.146.805.4711.039.264.025.233.57.65
−9516.714.524.258.497.593.014.292.95.77
NEAND_DP5m19.075.794.979.898.583.504.903.567.44
s1.900.930.391.510.640.280.490.390.99
n10111011101111912
+9523.367.865.8513.2510.034.125.994.469.62
−9514.773.724.096.527.132.883.812.665.26
MH_DPm18.206.475.3910.488.593.815.013.386.95
s1.680.700.641.060.800.500.760.531.06
n122133129133130134134115134
+9521.527.856.6612.5810.174.86.514.439.05
−9514.875.094.128.387.012.823.512.334.85
MH_DP5m16.415.734.559.137.643.244.022.805.74
s1.290.500.430.890.760.370.570.330.90
n171515161617171617
+9519.146.805.4711.039.264.025.233.57.65
−9513.674.663.637.236.022.462.812.13.83