Table 2 Signal-to-noise calculations for the three experiments performed on the photosystem II YD radical in frozen solution at a temperature of 80 K.

Approximately 1.6 × 1012 spins were calculated to be in the 85 nl that fill the microhelix. SNR, signal-to-noise ratio.

ExperimentSNR Re.SNR Im.Time
Continuous wave19713149 min
NARS4400230055 min
NARS (MDIFF)410423
ESE24845 min
ESE (MDIFF)106