Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the chronic opioid using samples (N = 135).

MeasureSample 1 (n = 40)Sample 2 (n = 31)Sample 3 (n = 64)
Age (mean ± SD)55.4 (11.1)57.8 (11.3)56.7 (10.9)
Female, n (%)23 (57.5)4 (12.9)42 (65.6)
Race, n (%)
  White or Caucasian36 (90.0)25 (80.6)53 (82.8)
  Hispanic or Latino1 (2.5)1 (3.2)3 (4.7)
  Black or African American01 (3.2)3 (4.7)
  Asian01 (3.2)0
  American Indian/Native Alaskan02 (6.5)0
  Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander1 (2.5)01 (1.6)
  Other001 (1.6)
  Not reported2 (5)1 (3.2)3 (4.7)
Primary pain location, n (%)
  Back pain22 (55.0)19 (61.3)30 (46.9)
  Hip/leg/foot pain3 (7.5)2 (6.4)8 (12.5)
  Joint pain3 (7.5)5 (16.1)6 (9.4)
  Neck/shoulder pain6 (15.0)1 (3.2)4 (6.3)
  Other pain location6 (15.0)4 (12.9)16 (25.0)
Average pain severity (0–10)5.2 (1.5)5.26 (1.7)5.13 (1.5)
Primary opioid type, n (%)
  Hydrocodone10 (25.0)8 (25.8)20 (31.3)
  Oxycodone8 (20.0)9 (29.0)19 (29.7)
  Tramadol10 (25.0)10 (32.3)10 (15.6)
  Morphine4 (10.0)3 (9.7)8 (12.5)
  Methadone or buprenorphine8 (20.0)1 (3.2)2 (3.1)
  Fentanyl002 (3.1)
  Other002 (4.7)
Duration of opioid use in years
(mean ± SD)
10.3 (8.5)8.3 (5.7)10.9 (7.1)
Morphine equivalent daily dose
(mean ± SD)
84.1 (102.4)62.3 (131.5)71.4 (96.6)