Table 1 Diversity of tobacco products.

ProductDefinitionTypespHNicotine levels
CigaretteTobacco rolled in paper
for smoking
A typical cigarette weighs <1 g;
regular length (70 mm long),
king (84 mm), 100s (100 mm),
and 120s (120 mm)
Acidic, inhalable, pH 5.5–6Average in rod, 13.5 mg
(range: 11.9–14.5 mg);
nicotine yield to the
smoker: 1–1.5 mg/cigarette
CigarAir-cured, fermented tobacco
wrapped in material made at
least, in part, of tobacco leaf
Small filtered cigars (0.9–1.3 g
tobacco), cigarillos (1.3–2.5 g tobacco),
and large (premium) cigars
pH 6.5–8.0 inhalable and/or
buccal depending on
product pH
Nicotine content ranges
from 10 to 444 mg and
dependent on weight of
the cigar
BluntCannabis filled in a
hollowed-out cigarillo shell
No pH data availableNicotine intake much lower
than from cigarette or
cigar smoking, but, based on
animal studies, could
enhance rewarding effects of
delta 9-tetrahydrocannbinaol
Smokeless tobaccoTobacco inserted between lip
and gum or snorted into
the nose rather than
smoked by the user
Snuff (ground tobacco), snus
(ground tobacco in a tea bag–like
pouch), chew (shredded
tobacco)
Products range from more
acidic, pH 5.2–7.1, to more
alkaline for greater buccal
absorption, pH 7.6–8.6
Nicotine concentrations vary,
range of 0.2 to 34 mg/g,
the more alkaline
products are capable of
delivering higher levels of
nicotine
Waterpipe/HookahCharcoal-heated flavored
tobacco passed through a
water-filled chamber that
cools the smoke
Water tobacco is a mixture of
dried fruit, molasses and
glycerin, and conventional
tobacco leaf
pH 3.8–5.8Average of 1.13 mg/g and
high of 3.30 mg/g for
product containing
nicotine; nicotine-free for
herbal (nontobacco) varieties
Heated tobaccoElectronic devices that heat
reconstituted tobacco
sticks treated with a
glycerin humectant to
deliver an aerosol
IQOS, Glo, and Ploom TechpH 5.5–6Nicotine delivery can match
that of conventional cigarettes
E-cigaretteElectric devices that produce
an aerosol from a liquid
that typically contains
nicotine, propylene glycol,
vegetable glycerin, and
flavorings
Cigalikes/e-pens, tank systems,
pods/nicotine salts (e.g.,
benzoate and lactate)
Free base e-liquid: alkaline,
pH 7–9; nicotine salts:
acidic, inhalable, pH
3.5–6.8
E-liquid nicotine content
from 0 to 100 mg/ml.
Nicotine delivery can
match that of
conventional cigarette but
varies by device design
(heating temperature),
e-liquid nicotine content,
and user behavior