Table 2 Political attitudes by conservative versus liberal protesters in the United States.

Surveys collected by Heaney at 16 protest events in Washington, DC (N = 3222) are shown. Data are weighted to account for response rate differences based on race/ethnicity and sex/gender.

Conservative event (Likert score)Liberal event (Likert score)Difference of means test (t score)
Efficacy of the American political system
The American political system is
generally effective in solving public
problems.
2.972.518.40*
Elections are an effective way for
citizens to hold their leaders
accountable for the decisions that
they make in office.
4.273.928.00*
Attitudes toward the party system
Conversing about politics with people
who hold different partisan loyalties
than me is generally very valuable.
4.003.970.57
American democracy would be
stronger if third parties played a
greater role in the system.
3.373.9310.03*
Opinions on protest tactics
Civility by the participants in protest is
necessary in order for protest to
influence the actions of policy-makers.
4.434.156.36*
Property damage and/or violence are
sometimes necessary for protest to
influence the actions of policy-makers.
1.362.0714.31*
Personal political efficacy
Public officials do not care much
about what people like me think.
3.403.360.79
Sometimes, politics and government
seem so complicated that a person
like me cannot really understand what
is going on.
2.622.560.94
Race and gender
In general, African Americans are more
likely to be treated unfairly in the
workplace compared with White
Americans.
2.654.4933.85*
In general, women are more likely to
be treated unfairly in the workplace
compared with men.
2.674.5231.59*

*P ≤ 0.001.