Table 1 Teratology: Characterization, severity, and possible cause.

TeratologyCharacteristicsSeverityPossible cause
(A) Dwarfed
forms
Aberrant small
size. Often
dense exine.
Immature.
MinorPremature
shedding.
(B) Unexpanded
forms
Poorly inflated.
Immature.
MinorPremature
shedding.
(C) Uneven
trilete rays
Uneven length
of trilete rays or
deformed
(sinuous) trilete
rays.
Minor to
moderate
One or more
aborted spore
in tetrad.
(D) Aberrant
folding
Exine with
transverse folds
and/or cracks.
Minor to
moderate
Mild genetic
disturbance?
(E) Labra
thickened or
with growths
Aberrant wide
labras or with
growths
(baculae,
granae, and
verrucae) on
labra.
Minor to
moderate
Mild genetic
disturbance.
(F) Mono- or
multilete
Aberrant mark
with too few or
too many rays.
ModerateDisturbed
meiosis
resulting in
either a
tetragonal
tetrad
configuration,
or more than 4
spores, or due
to fused twins.
Unbalanced
cytokinesis.
(G) Deformed
outline
Indentations on
spore margin,
not caused by
folding or
preservation.
ModerateProbably not
only related to
uneven spore
development in
a tetrad.
Genetic
disturbance
affecting cell
growth.
Incomplete
cytokinesis.
(H) Minor
proximal
deformation
Thickened and/
or wrinkled
proximal area
with trilete
mark partially
discernable.
Moderate to
severe
Genetic
deformation
affecting the
proximal
(germination)
area.
(I) Deformed or
fused tetrads or
dyads
Not merely
separate spores
still in tetrad or
dyad
configuration.
Moderate to
severe
May indicate
genetic
disturbance
and
unbalanced
cytokinesis.
(J) Major
proximal
deformation
Thickened and
wrinkled
proximal area
where the
trilete mark is
not discernable.
SevereSevere genetic
deformation of
proximal
(germination)
area.