Table 1 Sites and layers with cut-marked raptor phalanges interpreted as symbolic elements associated with Neanderthals or transitional MP/UP populations.

CP, Châtelperronian; CM, Classic Mousterian; L, Levallois; M, Mousterian; MTA, Mousterian of Acheulean Tradition; N, Neronian; N/A, not applicable/unknown.

SiteLayerAge (ka)Cultural
attribution
Taxa CMCommon
name
CM NISPBird NISPRaptor NISPReference
Baume de
Gigny*
XV50MPCygnus
cygnus
Whooper
swan
1N/AN/A(13, 14)
Combe Grenal5290MP-CMAquila
chrysaetos
Golden eagle171(13)
FumaneA12MIS3MP-LAquila
chrysaetos
Golden eagle1N/A1(15, 16)
Fumane*A938–42MP-DTetrao tetrixBlack grouse1N/AN/A(17)
Grotte de
L’Hyene
N/AMIS3MPAquila
chrysaetos
Golden eagle1N/AN/A(13, 16)
Grotte du
Renne
IX-X44–42CPHaliaetus
albicilla
White-tailed
eagle
1N/AN/A(18)
Grotte du
Renne
IX-X44–42CPBubo buboEuropean
eagle-owl
1N/AN/A(18)
KrapinaN/A100–130MP-MHaliaetus
albicilla
White-tailed
eagle
52912(19)
Les FieuxI/J60–40MP-DMHaliaetus
albicilla
White-tailed
eagle
1813(13, 20)
Les FieuxJbase60–40MP-MTAHaliaetus
albicilla
White-tailed
eagle
1424(13, 20)
Les FieuxKsMIS3MP-MTAHaliaetus
albicilla
White-tailed
eagle
2978(13, 20)
Les FieuxKsMIS3MP-MTAAegypius
monachus
Cinereous
vulture
1978(13, 20)
Les FieuxRec. cleanMIS3MP-MTAHaliaetus
albicilla
White-tailed
eagle
2>22(13, 20)
MandrinE52–56MP-NAquila
chrysaetos
Golden eagle1111(15)
Pech de l’Azé I444–48MP-MTAAquila
chrysaetos
Golden eagle2925(14, 21)
Pech de l’Azé IV8100MP-MMedium-
sized raptor
N/A111(22)
Rio Secco748–49MP-MAquila
chrysaetos
Golden eagle1151(15)
Cova
Foradada
IV1>39CPAquila
[heliaca]
adalberti
(Iberian?)
Imperial
eagle
14112This work,
(23)

*The cases of Baume de Gigny and Fumane A9 correspond to other birds than raptors.