Table 1 Catalytic performance of PdNPs@CPN in the hydrogenation reactions for various nitroarenes.
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*Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry result.

†Reaction conditions: nitroarenes (2.3 mmol), PdNPs@CPN (0.25 mol %), H2O (4 ml), room temperature.

‡Without PdNPs@CPN.

§Nitroarenes (1 mmol), PdNPs@CPN (0.25 mol %), and 50 ml of H2O/methanol (3:2) as the solvent.

║Pd/C as the catalyst.

¶Pt/alumina as the catalyst.