Table 1 Simulated prediction and experimental results of effective piezoelectric coefficients of all seven types of metamaterials based on a kind of commercialized PZT-5H ceramics.

Several experimental results are even bigger than the simulated ones because of an additional shear-bending amplification effect.

Neotype modesSpecimen sizes
(length × width × thickness)
Simulation values
(pm/V)
Experiment values
(pm/V)
d11 (LTR = 40)20 mm × 7 mm × 0.5 mm16,00013,592
d13 (LTR = 28)14 mm × 7 mm × 0.5 mm11,2006,984
d12 (LTR = 14)14 mm × 14 mm × 1 mm2002,205
d14 (TLR = 0.1)10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm2864
d16 (TLR = 0.1)10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm2237
d34 (TLR = 0.1)10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm531714
d36 (TLR = 1/14)14 mm × 14 mm × 1 mm372259