Table 1 Simulated prediction and experimental results of effective piezoelectric coefficients of all seven types of metamaterials based on a kind of commercialized PZT-5H ceramics.

Several experimental results are even bigger than the simulated ones because of an additional shear-bending amplification effect.

 Neotype modes Specimen sizes(length × width × thickness) Simulation values(pm/V) Experiment values(pm/V) d11 (LTR = 40) 20 mm × 7 mm × 0.5 mm 16,000 13,592 d13 (LTR = 28) 14 mm × 7 mm × 0.5 mm 11,200 6,984 d12 (LTR = 14) 14 mm × 14 mm × 1 mm 200 2,205 d14 (TLR = 0.1) 10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm 28 64 d16 (TLR = 0.1) 10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm 22 37 d34 (TLR = 0.1) 10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm 531 714 d36 (TLR = 1/14) 14 mm × 14 mm × 1 mm 372 259