Table 1 Results of comprehensive LMM analysis for study 2.Dependent variable: math HCP. Independent variables were not transformed. Random effects: The random intercepts for age, gender, education level, highest level of math taken, current math taking, ethnicity, race, and income. All 332 rows (participants) were entered into the model. The maximum likelihood estimation method was used to fit the model. *df* = 321. Adjusted *R*^{2} = 47.04%. The 95% confidence intervals are presented in parentheses beside the βs.