Table 2 Climate design principles for the protected seascape.

Different tools perform complementary functions within a climate-resilient conserved seascape.

Management toolObjectives/characteristicsExamples
Static toolsStatic MPAs (anchor points)Conservation of assemblages associated with
static geomorphological features and other
sites of present and future conservation
importance
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
(Australia)
Maintaining long-term monitoring (control/
baseline) sites where climate impacts can be
assessed in the absence of other stressors
Galapagos Marine Reserve (Ecuador)
Creating networks for meta-populations and
fixed migration corridors
Marianas Trench National Monument
(USA)
Static OECMsEffective conservation of key ecological features
and biodiversity from a single or several
threats (regardless of primary objective of
OECM)
Rockall Haddock Box High Seas Trawl
Closure (North East Atlantic
Fisheries Commission)
Act as long-term monitoring sites for climate
impacts with single or multiple additional
uses and/or stressors superimposed
Creating networks for meta-populations and
fixed migration corridors
Dynamic toolsDynamic ocean management areas*Respond to rapid shifts in species distribution
and threats
Dynamic fisheries closures to protect
North Atlantic right whales
(Canada)
Provide short-term/seasonal corridors or
stepping stones
Provide quicker deployment (and removal) than
MPAs
Not fully multisectoral; often single-sectoral
Unlikely to be considered OECMs under the
present definition, unless they remain in
place for an extended period (see Table 3)
Climate-responsive biodiversity closures
(CRBCs)
A hybrid of MPAs (multisectoral) with
shorter-term closures (ability to relocate and
react to climate-driven changes)
Currently conceptual—see main text
Respond to climate-driven biological responses
by moving boundaries to track shifting
habitats or ecosystems
Focus on shifts due to climate signal rather than
other fluctuations
Unlikely to be considered OECMs under the
present definition, unless they remain in
place for an extended period (see Table 3)

*Also known as dynamic conservation features and/or short-term closures.