Table 1 Examples of climate change adaption objectives and possible actions.

Objective with climate changeExample actions to
operationalize
Early detection of climate change
impacts
Enhanced multisensor monitoring
Citizen science observer networks
Use of sentinel species as
indicators
Protecting species or habitats that
move
Support migration of climate-
displaced species or habitats
with flexible design features or
other management measures
and protect from other
stressors
Enabling reorganization of
ecosystems to retain functions
and services under climate
change
Manage for resilience under a
changing climate rather than
assuming static features and
outcomes
Reassess and revise zoning and
management plans to account
for ecosystem and species
shifts
Specify climate mitigation into MPA
network design and
management objectives
Maintaining representative MPA
networks in a changing climate
Include areas of high and low
predicted climate resilience,
future change, and adaptation
potential in representative
network design
Use both static and dynamic
features to better conserve
ecosystems
Better integrate conservation and
fisheries management
measures to augment one
another
Focus network around anchor-
point static areas but integrate
multiple tools including more
dynamic and responsive
approaches (see Table 2)
Adapting to unforeseen
conservation challenges and
opportunities as climate change
reconfigures ecosystems
Move toward dynamic
conservation objectives
Update management plans and
objectives a based on observed
changes
Collect stakeholder observations
and feedback