Table 2 Summary of the PMIP3 simulations and two additional climate model simulations conducted for the purpose of this study.

The fourth and fifth columns indicate the averaging periods (years) for the preindustrial (0 ka) and the mid-Holocene (6 ka) simulations, respectively. References for these PMIP3 models can be found in (39).

PMIP3 modelsAtmosphere resolutions
(lat × lon lev)
Ocean resolutions
(lat × lon lev)
0 ka (years)6 ka (years)
BCC-CSM-1T42 L26360 × 232 L40500100
NCAR-CCSM40.9° × 1.25° L26320 × 384 L601050300
CNRM-CM5T127 L31362 × 292 L42850200
CSIRO-Mk3-6-0T63 L18192 × 192 L31500100
FGOALS-g22.81° × 2.81° L26360 × 196 L30700685
FGOALS-s21.67° × 2.81° L26360 × 196 L30501100
GISS-E2-R2.0° × 2.5° L40288 × 180 L321200100
IPSL-CM5A-LR1.875° × 3.75° L39182 × 149 L311000500
MIROC-ESM2.8° × 2.8° L80256 × 192 L44630100
MPI-ESM-PT63 L47256 × 220 L401150100
MRI-CGCM3TL159 L48364 × 368 L51500100
Additional modelsAtmosphere resolutionsOcean resolutions0 ka (years)6 ka (years)
CESM1-CAM50.9° × 1.25° L26gx1v6 L60250250
GFDL-CM2.12.0° × 2.5° L24360 × 384 L50150150