Table 1 Water intensity of new-well oil and gas production (liters/gigajoule).

Sources and notes: Water volumes and well counts from tables S1 and S2 of Kondash et al. (1). New natural gas and oil production volumes are based on data from the U.S. Energy Information’s Drilling Productivity Report (3). The annual water use for hydraulic fracturing is divided by the energy content in the annual sums of new oil and gas production to generate the water intensity of production in each year. See the Supplementary Materials for details.

YearHaynesvilleMarcellusPermianNiobraraEagle FordBakkenCumulative
20119.1
20128.023.32.411.716.79.312.8
20139.416.73.27.814.89.511.5
20148.710.44.515.012.411.310.2
201510.710.515.217.414.212.913.5
20169.76.122.920.513.516.315.3
2016/2012 or 2011
(Bakken only)
+22%−74%+848%+76%−19%+79%+19%