Table 1 Emission rates of known THS compounds in online PTR-TOF MS data.

All compounds reported here have been previously observed in tobacco smoke (6, 21, 22). For the isomer distributions for C8 aromatics, C9 aromatics, and C10 aromatics, consult Fig. 2D.

CompoundsAverage
emission
rate during
THS events
(mg/hour)
Emission rate regression
to 2,5-dimethylfuran
Emission rate regression
to benzene
t test: R-rated versus G-rated
emission rates
Mean ± SD*rSloperSlopetP value
AromaticsBenzene§3.46 ± 1.790.874.73 ± 0.731.001.00 ± 0.004.140.001
Toluene§5.91 ± 2.780.746.14 ± 1.530.931.42 ± 0.152.790.009
C8 aromatics§4.84 ± 2.110.745.00 ± 1.260.921.15 ± 0.142.810.010
C9 aromatics3.12 ± 1.370.723.28 ± 0.880.910.77 ± 0.104.36<0.001
C10 aromatics0.91 ± 0.420.751.03 ± 0.250.910.23 ± 0.034.62<0.001
Phenol§0.57 ± 0.320.850.74 ± 0.130.770.13 ± 0.032.600.011
Styrene§0.71 ± 0.350.720.84 ± 0.220.830.18 ± 0.035.07<0.001
Benzaldehyde0.24 ± 0.100.590.18 ± 0.070.570.03 ± 0.012.980.006
Cresols§0.26 ± 0.140.870.34 ± 0.050.810.06 ± 0.012.930.006
Naphthalene§0.34 ± 0.160.880.40 ± 0.060.880.07 ± 0.012.780.008
FuranoidsFuran0.43 ± 0.400.900.90 ± 0.120.740.14 ± 0.031.830.045
2-Methylfuran0.83 ± 0.750.981.92 ± 0.110.850.31 ± 0.053.150.006
2,5-Dimethylfuran§0.48 ± 0.361.001.00 ± 0.000.870.16 ± 0.023.760.002
Furfural0.60 ± 0.360.900.86 ± 0.110.800.14 ± 0.032.290.020
Furfuryl alcohol0.31 ± 0.140.930.37 ± 0.040.830.06 ± 0.013.370.003
CarbonylsFormaldehyde§0.94 ± 0.500.871.25 ± 0.200.830.22 ± 0.043.840.001
Acetaldehyde§9.07 ± 6.510.9015.44 ± 2.200.842.64 ± 0.502.860.009
Acrolein§0.73 ± 0.570.941.43 ± 0.140.870.24 ± 0.043.310.004
Acetone20.45 ± 10.450.6919.54 ± 6.430.723.75 ± 1.143.060.010
Methacrolein0.61 ± 0.430.931.10 ± 0.120.850.18 ± 0.033.140.004
2,3-Butanedione1.00 ± 0.680.901.68 ± 0.230.720.25 ± 0.073.590.003
OtherAcetonitrile§1.20 ± 0.860.962.24 ± 0.190.800.35 ± 0.073.270.004
Acetic acid8.40 ± 2.210.685.84 ± 1.990.691.09 ± 0.363.100.010
Isoprene4.55 ± 2.890.846.81 ± 1.220.771.15 ± 0.262.930.006
Monoterpenes2.14 ± 1.910.582.62 ± 1.050.460.41 ± 0.230.990.179

*Emission rates were calculated from the THS emission events of 10 R-rated movie showings unless noted otherwise. High SDs indicate high movie-to-movie variability. Emission rates include isomers and ionization products not mentioned above (e.g., methyl vinyl ketone with methacrolein).

P values in bold represent those that are statistically significant (P < 0.05) for the unpaired two-sample t test, evaluating whether the emission rates were higher in the 10 R-rated movie screenings than the five family movies. See section S1 for more details.

‡Compounds were identified with an offline GC-MS method for ≥C6 compounds using standards and the National Institute of Standards and Technology library.

§Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as assigned by the EPA or in the case of 2,5-dimethylfuran, showed cytotoxicity in previous studies (1).

∥Emission factors use data from days 1 to 3 for acetone and acetic acid because large non-THS related emissions from cleaning were observed before the start of day 4 for these compounds, which biased calculations. The monoterpenes values exclude the third film on day 1 because of a large non-THS spike after the start of the film.