Table 1 Characteristics of instructors.

Characteristics of instructors.. Notes: (i) Only publications in journals indexed by Web of Science and Scopus were included; (ii) Russia has a two-level system of doctoral qualifications. The first level—Candidate of Sciences—is equivalent to PhD or similar degrees. The second level—Doctor of Sciences—is an additional qualification that allows obtaining an academic rank of full professor (similar to “Habilitation” in Germany and other European countries).

CourseInstructorAcademic degreePlace of
Academic rankYears of teachingPublications
EMInstructor A, onlinePhD (Habilitation)Elite universityProfessor4639
Instructor B, onlinePhD (Habilitation)Elite universityAssociate professor2420
Instructor A, U1PhDNon-elite universityAssociate professor17
Instructor B, U1PhDNon-elite universityAssociate professor201
Instructor A, U2PhDNon-elite universityAssociate professor351
Instructor B, U2Non-elite universitySenior lecturer125
CMTInstructor A, onlinePhDElite universityAssociate professor31
Instructor B, onlinePhDElite universityAssociate professor43
Instructor C, onlinePhDElite universityAssociate professor47
Instructor D, onlinePhDElite universityAssociate professor51
Instructor A, U3Non-elite universitySenior lecturer11