Table 2 Student level summary statistics in each condition.

Student level summary statistics in each condition.. Note: GPA, grade point average.

CovariateIn-person conditionBlended conditionOnline condition
NMeansSDNMeansSDNMeansSD
Female1010.320.471000.400.491240.270.44
Age9718.900.909718.961.1411018.920.97
Had online learning experience930.280.45940.220.42990.250.44
Pretest score9631.3818.149632.1619.2611027.6118.24
College entrance exam score, Russian9775.4312.089774.5812.5811174.4613.45
College entrance exam score, math9658.7213.429759.9613.5711157.8713.89
College entrance exam score, physics9654.879.559555.7611.3910953.9510.44
Cumulative college GPA973.870.47973.860.501113.880.51
Intrinsic motivation index (α = 0.73)803.791.57734.231.56934.281.44
Extrinsic motivation index (α = 0.72)844.671.17854.861.181014.761.03
Self-efficacy in learning index (α = 0.71)580.131.1564−0.020.9176−0.080.95
Interaction with instructors index (α = 0.70)810.071.09840.111.0298−0.150.88