Table 1 Panel analysis results using different points in time, 1860–2010.

SEs are given in parentheses. Statistical significance is provided (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001). The different models tested are OLS, least squares dummy variables (LSDVs), and generalized least squares (GLS). LSDV and GLS are “within” estimators. BUILD is based on all land-use types; results for residential land-use types only are very similar.

OLSOLSLSDVGLSGLS
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)
Total populationTotal populationTotal
population
Total populationTotal population
Number of built-up
property records
(BUILD)
2.680***2.668***2.190***2.190***2.246***
SE(0.007)(0.012)(0.058)(0.013)(0.014)
Constant10503.8***13767.2***22513.3***22513.3***16123.0***
SE(550.069)(815.994)(1068.970)(701.136)(1274.106)
N109965900590059005900
R20.9260.8980.9460.8640.873
Adjusted R20.9260.8980.9290.8190.831
County sampleAllConsistentConsistentConsistentConsistent
Fixed effectsCountyCountyCounty, decade
Clustered SENoNoYesYesYes