Table 1 Study variables.

IPEDS, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, a database of survey information gathered by the Department of Education about every college or university that participates in federal financial aid programs; HBCU, historically black college or university; HSI, Hispanic-serving institution; SEP, Special Emphasis Panel. See model descriptions for variable inclusion.

Dependent variablePreliminary overall impactInteger score from 1 to 9; smaller is better
Variables of interest
  RacePI black1 for black, 0 for white; self-reported
  Preliminary criteria
SignificanceInteger score from 1 to 9; smaller is better
InvestigatorInteger score from 1 to 9; smaller is better
InnovationInteger score from 1 to 9; smaller is better
ApproachInteger score from 1 to 9; smaller is better
EnvironmentInteger score from 1 to 9; smaller is better
Structural covariates
  CSR peer review
IRGIntegrated Review Group
SRGScientific Review Group
Institute/CenterNIH Institute/Center making funding decisions
  Other indicators
Application IDEncrypted application indicator
Applicant IDEncrypted applicant/PI indicator
Reviewer IDEncrypted reviewer indicator
Other covariates
GenderF/M, self-reported
EthnicityHispanic/Latino or not, self-reported
Career stageEarly stage (ES), experienced, or non-ES
new investigator
Degree typePh.D., M.D., M.D./Ph.D., Other
Terminal degree yearYear of most recent degree
NIH funding historyFirst NIH application, previously applied,
or previously funded
Geographic locationLocation of institution: central, east, south, or west
NIH funding binFY 2014 total institution NIH funding; five bins
Institution sectorPublic, private, or other
Graduate education1 if institution provides graduate education; 0 if not
IPEDS lookup1 if institution in IPEDS database; 0 if not
MSI typeMinority-serving institution type: HBCU, HSI,
or otherwise
Application typeNew or renewal
Solicitation typeRequest for application, Program announcement,
Amended statusAmended or not
Multiple PIsYes or no
Requested costsFunding dollars requested
Support yearsSupport years requested, from 1 to 5
Council year2014–2016; year of review councils
Review group typeStanding study section, recurring SEP,
or nonrecurring SEP
Human subjectsAcceptable, unacceptable, or inapplicable
Animal subjectsAcceptable, unacceptable, or inapplicable
Child codeAcceptable, unacceptable, or inapplicable
Gender codeAcceptable, unacceptable, or inapplicable
Minority codeAcceptable, unacceptable, or inapplicable