Table 1 Direct and legacy anomalies in regional carbon fluxes.

Annual, spring, and summer integrated anomalies in NBP, GPP, and TER from the baseline simulation (SRef) and the corresponding individual contributions of spring and summer climate, estimated by the two idealized simulations (SMAM and SJJA). The anomaly values correspond to the MMEM, and the uncertainty is given by the interquartile range of the 11 DGVMs. The asterisks indicate ensemble anomalies significantly different than zero at 95% (*) and 99% (**) confidence levels estimated by a two-tailed Wilcoxon’s signed-rank test on the seasonal anomalies of the 11 DGVMs. Units: gC m−2 season−1 for spring and summer values, and gC m−2 year−1 for annual values.

AnomalyR1R2
SRefSpring effectSummer effectSRefSpring effectSummer effect
NBPAnnual−8 ± 80−10 ± 49−63 ± 9110 ± 637 ± 30−24 ± 26
Spring (MAM)19 ± 26*5 ± 2915 ± 14*8 ± 15*
Summer (JJA)−22 ± 65−22 ± 42−72 ± 82*15 ± 497 ± 9−15 ± 30
GPPAnnual89 ± 116*−2 ± 28−44 ± 9789 ± 30 **35 ± 14 **−10 ± 29
Spring (MAM)56 ± 19**29 ± 2328 ± 16 **30 ± 14 **
Summer (JJA)23 ± 98−30 ± 54*−44 ± 8148 ± 22 **10 ± 15−10 ± 29
TERAnnual90 ± 88 **14 ± 34−12 ± 4271 ± 31 **21 ± 20 **12 ± 19
Spring (MAM)37 ± 17 **30 ± 12 **15 ± 13 **18 ± 10 **
Summer (JJA)39 ± 59*−14 ± 12*3 ± 4335 ± 22 **3 ± 1515 ± 21