Table 1 Correlation coefficients of the two leading modes with climate indices.

Correlation coefficients of the two leading modes of annual-mean surface temperature with the following climate indices: SAM, Pacific South America (PSA)–1, PSA-2, NINO3, NINO3.4, and NINO4. The bold values indicate that the correlation coefficient is significant at the 99% confidence level. For the Student’s t test, we reduced the number of degrees of freedom by using the effective sample size.

EOF1
(ANN)
EOF2
(ANN)
EOF1
(DJF)
EOF2
(DJF)
EOF1
(MAM)
EOF2
(MAM)
EOF1
(JJA)
EOF2
(JJA)
EOF1
(SON)
EOF2
(SON)
SAM−0.390.16−0.490.11−0.66−0.13−0.670.08−0.290.18
PSA-1−0.25−0.25−0.440.03−0.17−0.14−0.19−0.17−0.490.09
PSA-20.10−0.410.43−0.26−0.04−0.460.01−0.47−0.17−0.36
NINO3−0.15−0.070.17−0.090.02−0.03−0.03−0.03−0.120.12
NINO3.4−0.11−0.170.19−0.110.08−0.090.03−0.05−0.150.09
NINO40.21−0.200.260.000.11−0.130.18−0.11−0.03−0.05