Table 1 Mechanical properties of L. annua in comparison with other cellulose-based films.

Young modulus (E), ultimate tensile strength (σ), percentage elongation (ε), and corresponding density normalized values, respectively, (E/ρ), (σ/ρ), and (ε/ρ) for the Lunaria septa, cellulose microfibril films, and shear-aligned cellulose nanocrystal films. The minimum and maximum values are reported for the L. annua and cellulose microfibril films (46), whereas the values in axial and perpendicular direction to the cellulose nanocrystal alignment are reported for the cellulose nanocrystal films (45). The density-normalized values are calculated assuming a density of 0.26, 1.5, and 1.55 g/cm3 for the Lunaria septa, the cellulose microfibril films, and the cellulose nanocrystal films, respectively.

E (GPa)E/ρ (GPa)/(g cm−3)σ (MPa)σ/ρ (MPa)/(g cm−3)ε (%)ε/ρ (%)/(g cm−3)
Lunaria septa0.5 to 0.81.9 to 3.22.2 to 26.48.4 to 1030.3 to 3.31 to 12.7
Cellulose microfibril films (46)1 to 17.50.7 to 11.730 to 15520 to 103.32.5 to 11.51.7 to 7.7
Cellulose nanocrystal films (45)6.7 to 29.74.3 to 19.248 to 7731 to 49.60.3 to 0.90.2 to 0.6