Table 3 VOD model summary.

Parameter estimates for the model describing the relationship between VOD and the predictor variables. CI, credible interval.

Population-level effects
EstimateEst. error1–95% CIU-95% CIRhatBulk_ESSTail_ESS
Intercept1.060.080.91.221.0023,28935,333
VODD−0.020.01−0.0301.0034,76041,624
Looking0.210.020.170.251.0069,33746,658
Not engaged not looking0.110.020.060.161.0070,82147,802
Open (Habitat)0.150.020.120.191.0073,74846,813
Ground (Height)0.060.05−0.040.161.0074,86545,743
Number of neighbors−0.050.01−0.06−0.031.0076,91046,466
Neighbor flee first0.080.0400.161.0078,00346,586
External factors within 5 min0.020.03−0.040.081.0079,04547,160
Unfamiliar observer (AB)−0.040.07−0.190.111.0017,01128,032
Trial number−0.010.01−0.020.011.0018,35129,277
Unfamiliar observer (AB): Trial number0.010.01−0.010.031.0017,13826,376
Family specific (log-normal)
Sigma0.310.010.30.321.0048,39743,998
Group-level effects
Date (58 levels)
sd(Intercept)0.140.020.10.181.0017,02732,825
Individual identity (69 levels)
sd(Intercept)0.240.030.180.311.0013,55827,638
sd(VODD)0.040.010.020.051.0019,66331,617
sd(ObserverAB)0.090.040.010.171.007,95613,090
sd(TrialNo)0.01000.021.007,99511,891
sd(ObserverAB:TrialNo)0.010.0100.021.005,45412,200
cor(Intercept,VODD)0.570.190.150.891.0014,07124,184
cor(Intercept,ObserverAB)0.210.31−0.460.761.0025,09133,269
cor(VODD,ObserverAB)0.160.33−0.530.741.0020,67133,171
cor(Intercept,TrialNo)−0.680.22−0.94−0.11.0022,28921,411
cor(VODD,TrialNo)−0.30.29−0.80.321.0017,87527,326
cor(ObserverAB,TrialNo)−0.170.37−0.810.571.0017,56930,321
cor(Intercept,ObserverAB:TrialNo)0.350.3−0.370.821.0018,44921,803
cor(VODD,ObserverAB:TrialNo)0.290.31−0.410.81.0027,31529,181
cor(ObserverAB,ObserverAB:TrialNo)−0.050.39−0.720.721.0017,70533,765
cor(TrialNo,ObserverAB:TrialNo)−0.470.34−0.910.41.009,75521,676