Table 1 Classifications of coprolites and sediment sample based on the relative distributions of fecal biomarkers.

LCA, lithocholic acid; DCA, deoxycholic acid; CDCA, chenodeoxycholic acid; CA, cholic acid; UDCA, ursodeoxycholic acid; 7-keto-LCA, 7-keto-lithocholic acid; 12-keto-LCA, 12-keto-lithocholic acid; n/a, not applicable; nd, not determined. Bile acids are presented in the order of abundance.

Sample
ID
Paisley
catalog
number
Published aDNA
results (3, 5)
Ratio 2
(12)
Ratio 3
(12)
Coprostanol/
cholesterol
Bile acidsLipid
biomarker
results
Age 14C yr B.P.
1651294-PC-5/7D-
4-3a
H. sapiens mtDNA
haplogroup B2,
Canis latrans
0.92.53.0DCA, 12-keto-LCA,
7-keto-LCA, LCA, CA
Human1308 ± 28 (OxA-16377)
2231704-PC-
5/12C-13-6a
H. sapiens mtDNA
haplogroup A
0.12.70DCA, 12-keto-LCA
LCA, CA
Carnivore4950 ± 15 (UCIAMS-79710)
2161704-PC-
5/12C-13-4a
L. rufus0.11.50DCA, CA, 12-keto-LCA
CDCA, LCA
Carnivore5380 ± 15 (UCIAMS-79715)
2281704-PC-
5/12C-12-6a
H. sapiens mtDNA
haplogroup A
0.551.1DCA, 12-keto-LCA, 7-keto-LCA,
LCA, CA.
Human5595 ± 15 (UCIAMS-79702);
5655 ± 15 (UCIAMS-79703)
2261704-PC-
5/12C-14-6a
H. sapiens mtDNA
haplogroup A
0.713.64.0DCA, 12-keto-LCA,
7-keto-LCA, LCA, CA
Human5715 ± 15 (UCIAMS-76186)
2241704-PC-
5/12C-15-5a
H. sapiens mtDNA
haplogroup B
0.100DCA, CA, 12-keto-LCA,
LCA, CDCA
Carnivore6115 ± 15 (UCIAMS-76185)
2271704-PC-
5/12C-14-9a
H. sapiens mtDNA
haplogroup A
0.71.81.5DCA, 12-keto-LCA,
LCA, CA, UDCA
Human6970 ± 15 (UCIAMS-76180)
2511830-PC-
2/4D-33-2
H. sapiens mtDNA
haplogroup A
0.200.2DCA, 12-keto-LCA, CA,
7-keto-LCA, LCA
Carnivore7025 ± 15 (UCIAMS-79713)
2491830-PC-
2/4C-34-101
H. sapiens mtDNA
haplogroup A
0.23.80.2DCA, CA, 12-keto-LCA,
CDCA, LCA,
7-keto-LCA,
Carnivore7490 ± 20 (UCIAMS-79704);
7605 ± 20 (UCIAMS-79705)
2501830-PC-
2/4-D-33
H. sapiens mtDNA
haplogroup A
0.91.412.4DCA, CA, LCA, 12-keto-
LCA, 7-keto-LCA
Human7645 ± 20 (UCIAMS-79712)
2171704-PC-
5/12A-16-9a
H. sapiens mtDNA
haplogroup A
0.41.4DCA, 12-keto-LCA,
LCA, CA, 7-keto-LCA,
CDCA
Human9170 ± 20 (UCIAMS-76183)
2151704-PC-
5/12A-16-10a
H. sapiens mtDNA
haplogroup A
0.713.411.2CA, DCA, 12-keto-LCA
LCA
Human9585 ± 20 (UCIAMS-76181)
1951294-PC-5/6B-
40-6a
H. sapiens mtDNA
haplogroup B2,
C. lupus/familiaris
0.51.51.0CDCA, DCA, CA, LCAHuman/
carnivore*
10,050 ± 50 (β-213423);
10,965 ± 50 (OxA-16376)
2821896-PC-
5/16A-24-7
H. sapiens mtDNA
haplogroup A
0.71.06.4DCA, LCAHuman11,205 ± 25 (UCIAMS-90583);
11,250 ± 25 (UCIAMS-90584)
2831896-PC-
5/16A-25-12a
Camelidae0.22.4DCAn/a11,315 ± 25 (UCIAMS-90586);
12,125 ± 30 (UCIAMS-90589)
2801830-PC-
5/11B-33
H. sapiens mtDNA
haplogroup A
0.6nd6.9DCA, CA, LCA, 12-keto-
LCA, 7-keto-LCA,
CDCA
Human12,050 ± 25 (UCIAMS-79707);
12,165 ± 25 (UCIAMS-79706)
1941294-PC-5/6B-
50-5a
H. sapiens mtDNA
haplogroup A2,
V. vulpes
0.5nd32.2DCA, LCA, 12-keto-
LCA, CA
Human12,140 ± 70 (OxA-16495);
12,260 ± 60 (β-216474)
2711830-PC-
5/11B-31-12
P. leo0.31.40.2DCA, CDCACarnivoreFrom same context as
coprolite 281.
2811830-PC-
5/11B-31-2
H. sapiens mtDNA
haplogroup B
0.45.70.5DCA, CA, CDCA,
12-keto-LCA, LCA
Carnivore12,260 ± 30 (UCIAMS-76190);
12,265 ± 25 (UCIAMS-76190)
1851294-PC-5/7C-
31-9a
H. sapiens mtDNA
haplogroup B2
0.10.10.1DCAn/a12,290 ± 60 (β-213426);
12,345 ± 55 (OxA-16497)
1821374-PC-5/5D-
31-2a5
H. sapiens
mtDNA
haplogroup B?
0.2ndndCarnivore12,275 ± 55 (OxA-16498);
12,400 ± 60 (β-213424)

*Possible mixing of fecal matter due to high proportion of CDCA in bile acids.

†Several coprolites are associated with the same catalog number, and we cannot be 100% certain that we analyzed the same coprolite that was analyzed for mtDNA.

‡Potentially carnivore (unable to confirm due to lack of bile acids).