Table 1 Summary of term 1 and year 1 proportion of credits earned and GPA results.

Summary of term 1 and year 1 proportion of credits earned and GPA results.. SEs are in parentheses. For main effects analyses, condition was coded as −0.5 = control, 0.5 = treatment; ESL was coded as −0.5 = non-ESL, 0.5 = ESL; and cohort was coded as 0 = cohort 1, 1 = cohort 2. To obtain condition effects among ESL students and non-ESL students individually, we performed two separate sets of analyses with condition recoded. For condition effects among ESL students, ESL status was recentered so 0 = ESL, 1 = non-ESL. For condition effects among non-ESL students, ESL status was recentered so 0 = non-ESL, 1 = ESL. See the R code at the end of the Supplementary Materials for more information about the specifications for each analysis presented. ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01, and *P < 0.05.

Term 1Year 1
PredictorBelonging changeProportion of STEM
credits completed
STEM GPAProportion of STEM
credits completed
STEM GPA
Main effect of
condition
0.26*** (0.02)0.02** (0.01)0.05** (0.02)0.01* (0.00)0.01 (0.02)
Main effect of ESL
status
−0.03 (0.02)0.01 (0.01)0.13*** (0.02)0.01 (0.00)0.12*** (0.02)
Condition × ESL
interaction
−0.09* (0.05)0.03** (0.01)0.12** (0.04)0.03** (0.01)0.06 (0.04)
Cohort−0.16*** (0.02)−0.00 (0.00)−0.02 (0.02)−0.01 (0.00)−0.03 (0.02)
ACT composite0.01*** (0.00)0.01*** (0.00)0.09*** (0.00)0.01*** (0.00)0.10*** (0.00)
Simple effects for the condition × ESL interaction
Treatment effect
among ESL students
0.21*** (0.04)0.03*** (0.01)0.11** (0.04)0.02** (0.01)0.04 (0.03)
Treatment effect
among non-ESL
students
0.30*** (0.02)0.00 (0.00)−0.01 (0.02)−0.00 (0.00)−0.02 (0.02)