Table 1 Summary of term 1 and year 1 proportion of credits earned and GPA results.

Summary of term 1 and year 1 proportion of credits earned and GPA results.. SEs are in parentheses. For main effects analyses, condition was coded as −0.5 = control, 0.5 = treatment; ESL was coded as −0.5 = non-ESL, 0.5 = ESL; and cohort was coded as 0 = cohort 1, 1 = cohort 2. To obtain condition effects among ESL students and non-ESL students individually, we performed two separate sets of analyses with condition recoded. For condition effects among ESL students, ESL status was recentered so 0 = ESL, 1 = non-ESL. For condition effects among non-ESL students, ESL status was recentered so 0 = non-ESL, 1 = ESL. See the R code at the end of the Supplementary Materials for more information about the specifications for each analysis presented. ***P < 0.001, **P < 0.01, and *P < 0.05.

 Term 1 Year 1 Predictor Belonging change Proportion of STEMcredits completed STEM GPA Proportion of STEMcredits completed STEM GPA Main effect ofcondition 0.26*** (0.02) 0.02** (0.01) 0.05** (0.02) 0.01* (0.00) 0.01 (0.02) Main effect of ESLstatus −0.03 (0.02) 0.01 (0.01) 0.13*** (0.02) 0.01 (0.00) 0.12*** (0.02) Condition × ESLinteraction −0.09* (0.05) 0.03** (0.01) 0.12** (0.04) 0.03** (0.01) 0.06 (0.04) Cohort −0.16*** (0.02) −0.00 (0.00) −0.02 (0.02) −0.01 (0.00) −0.03 (0.02) ACT composite 0.01*** (0.00) 0.01*** (0.00) 0.09*** (0.00) 0.01*** (0.00) 0.10*** (0.00) Simple effects for the condition × ESL interaction Treatment effectamong ESL students 0.21*** (0.04) 0.03*** (0.01) 0.11** (0.04) 0.02** (0.01) 0.04 (0.03) Treatment effectamong non-ESLstudents 0.30*** (0.02) 0.00 (0.00) −0.01 (0.02) −0.00 (0.00) −0.02 (0.02)