Table 1 Adjusted regression coefficients for OLS regression models predicting pandemic-related acute stress and depressive symptoms to the COVID-19 outbreak (N = 6514).

Reference group for cohort is cohort 1 (18 to 28 March 2020); reference group for ethnicity is white, non-Hispanic; reference group for residential area is urban; reference group for region is Northeast. All models were estimated using sampling weights to account for sampling design and differences between the sample and U.S. Census benchmarks. Standardized coefficients and confidence intervals were estimated by calculating z scores for all model variables (including categorical indicators) and fitting a multiple OLS regression model to the standardized transformation.

Acute stressDepressive symptoms
Predictor variablesβ95% CIbβ95% CIb
Cohort
  2 (29 March to 7
April)
0.05*0.01, 0.090.070.04−0.00, 0.080.06
  3 (8 to 18 April)0.10***0.06, 0.140.150.12***0.07, 0.160.17
Outbreak-related
media exposure
(daily hours/week)
0.15***0.10, 0.190.020.13***0.08, 0.170.01
Relative media
consumption
0.12***0.08, 0.150.000.04*0.00, 0.080.00
Conflicting info from
news media
0.17***0.13, 0.200.120.09***0.05, 0.130.06
Personal exposures0.09***0.06, 0.130.150.11***0.06, 0.150.17
Work exposures−0.03−0.06, 0.01−0.04−0.07***−0.11, −0.03−0.11
Community
exposures
0.00−0.04, 0.030.00−0.01−0.05, 0.02−0.01
Secondary stressors0.19***0.15, 0.240.120.12***0.07, 0.160.07
Prior mental health
diagnoses
0.18***0.13, 0.220.330.27***0.22, 0.320.49
Prior physical health
diagnoses
0.06**0.02, 0.090.030.08***0.04, 0.120.05
Age−0.10***−0.14, −0.06−0.00−0.18***−0.23, −0.14−0.01
Race/ethnicity
  Black, non-Hispanic−0.01−0.05, 0.03−0.02−0.04−0.08, 0.00−0.09
  Other, non-Hispanic−0.01−0.04, 0.02−0.02−0.00−0.03, 0.03−0.01
  Hispanic0.01−0.02, 0.050.030.03−0.01, 0.070.07
Bachelor’s degree +0.02−0.01, 0.050.02−0.03−0.06, 0.01−0.04
Female sex0.12***0.08, 0.150.170.02−0.02, 0.050.02
Income−0.02−0.06, 0.02−0.00−0.08***−0.12, −0.04−0.03
Residential area
  Suburban−0.03*−0.07, −0.00−0.08−0.04**−0.07, −0.01−0.10
  Town0.01−0.03, 0.040.01−0.01−0.04, 0.03−0.02
  Rural0.01−0.03, 0.050.030.00−0.03, 0.040.01
Region
  Midwest−0.07**−0.12, −0.02−0.11−0.03−0.08, 0.03−0.04
  South−0.07**−0.12, −0.02−0.11−0.03−0.09, 0.03−0.04
  West−0.06*−0.11, −0.01−0.09−0.01−0.07, 0.04−0.02
Constant0.00−0.03, 0.031.230.02−0.01, 0.050.60
Model statisticsF(24,6484.7) = 32.77; P < .001F(24,6484.6) = 23.59; P < .001
R2 = 0.272R2 = 0.244

*P < 0.05.

**P < 0.01.

***P < 0.001.