Table 1 Multiple environmental stressors and their bivariate Moran’s I values.

Positive or negative values of the BMI for biodiversity-loss species reflect how closely variables are correlated in space. A positive value indicates driving positive effect of a stressor on numbers of key biodiversity-loss species in the surrounding area, while a negative value indicates the corresponding adverse effect. A total of 1499 key biodiversity-loss species are found in China, and the overall population is decreasing. Refer to table S5 for the definitions and sources of these stressors. These data were collected at the provincial level and mainly cover recent years.

Stressor
category
Specific
stressor
Bivariate
Moran’s I
(BMI) with
threatened
species
P
Climate factorsClimate zone0.2390.002
Average
precipitation
0.2780.003
Average
temperature
0.310.001
Longitude−0.2390.003
Latitude−0.3950.001
Climate changeNOx emissions−0.2110.003
CO2 emissions−0.2280.001
Long-term
precipitation
change
0.1060.051
Long-term
temperature
change
−0.1010.054
PollutionSO2 emissions−0.1340.028
Industrial solid
waste
emissions
−0.2110.001
Waste water
emissions
−0.0380.324
Emergent
environmental
accidents
−0.0460.223
Human activitiesGross domestic
product (GDP)
−0.0870.094
Electricity
consumption
−0.1050.053
Nighttime
lights
−0.1540.007
Cultivated land−0.1060.014
Construction
land
−0.1330.029
Natural factorsForest coverage0.2110.005
Economic
losses caused
by geological
disasters
0.1420.027
Soil erosion0.0420.184
Eco-water
supplies
−0.2260.001