Table 1 Characteristics of patients receiving or not receiving baricitinib in the unmatched and matched study population from the University of Pisa (Italy).

All data are medians with the interquartile range or number of participants (%). COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; PaO2/FiO2, ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; ARB, angiotensin-receptor blocker; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; SOFA, sequential organ failure assessment; ULN, upper limit of normal.

Baricitinib group (n = 37)Control group (n = 142)PS matched control group (n = 37)
Age66.0 (48.0–84.0)**76.5 (62.5–83)**65 (40–90)
Male sex27 (73)95 (66.9)26 (70.3)
Interval between symptom onset and
admission
6 (3.5–9)7 (3–8)7 (4–7.5)
Coexisting conditions
  Hypertension16 (43.2)79 (55.9)18 (48.6)
  Cardiovascular disease9 (24.3)56 (39.4)6 (16.2)
  Solid cancer6 (16.2)22 (15.5)9 (24.3)
  Diabetes7 (18.9)32 (22.5)8 (21.6)
  COPD1 (2.7)*27 (19.0)*0 (0.0)
  Chronic kidney failure2 (5.4)16 (11.3)1 (2.7)
Charlson comorbidity index2 (0–4)2 (1–5)1 (0–6)
Medications at baseline
  ACE inhibitor or ARB9 (24.3)43 (30.4)9 (24.3)
  Direct oral anticoagulant or warfarin5 (13.5)24 (16.9)1 (2.7)
SOFA score3 (1–5)3 (2–4)3 (2–4)
Baseline PaO2/FiO2242 (143–341)254 (200–298)252 (169–335)
Noninvasive mechanical ventilation17 (45.9)***19 (13.4)***13 (35.1)
Baseline laboratory tests
  C-reactive protein (mg/dl)5.7 (0.0–18.0)8.3 (3.7–16.1)11.2 (0.0–25.4)
  Lymphocyte count1010 (400–1620)830 (580–1160)740 (145–1335)
  ALT (U/liter)39 (13–65)25 (16–45)28 (0–58)
  AST (U/liter)43 (12–74)33 (24–50)32 (10–54)
  ALT > 3× ULN1 (2.7%)8 (5.6%)1 (2.7%)
  AST > 3× ULN1 (2.7%)11 (7.7%)2 (5.4%)
  Total bilirubin (mg/dl)0.51 (0.31–0.71)0.49 (0.35–0.77)0.48 (0.08–0.88)
Concomitant treatment
  Hydroxychloroquine34 (91.9)*102 (71.8)*34 (91.9)
  Other antibiotics33 (89.2)109 (76.8)34 (91.9)
  Proteases inhibitors30 (81.1)*89 (62.7)*29 (78.4)
  LMWH (enoxaparin)36 (97.3)***98 (69)***36 (97.3)
  Steroids27 (73.0)**65 (45.8)**28 (75.7)
Primary outcome5 (13.5)***66 (46.5)***13 (35.1)*
  Invasive mechanical ventilation4 (10.8)19 (13.4)9 (24.3)
  Died without intubation1 (2.7)47 (33.1)4 (5.4)

*P < 0.05

**P < 0.01

***P < 0.001