Table 2 Prominent green clubs with a focus on promoting sustainable ocean business.

InitiativeDescriptionExamples of reported impacts
Association of Responsible Krill Fishers (ARK)
www.ark-krill.org
Established in 2012, ARK brings together
companies engaged in Antarctic krill fishing to
ensure the long-term sustainability of the
fishery and its dependent predators. ARK
includes 1 of the Ocean 100 companies
Establishment of three voluntary restricted zones
and 100% compliance by fleets during the
2019/2020 season
www.ark-krill.org/ark-voluntary-measures
Global Salmon Initiative (GSI)
www.globalsalmoninitiative.org
Established in 2013, the GSI is a leadership
initiative situated at CEO-level that aims to
promote sustainable salmon production while
minimizing its carbon footprint. GSI includes 2
of the Ocean 100 companies
Commitment by members to 100% certification of
farms by Aquaculture Stewardship Council.
Growth from 0% in 2013 to 65% of production
in 2020
https://globalsalmoninitiative.org/en/sustainability-report/asc-certification/
IPIECA
www.ipieca.org
Established in 1974, IPIECA is the only global
association of upstream and downstream oil
and gas industry companies, with a focus on
improving environmental and social
performance. IPIECA includes 24 of the Ocean
100 companies
Standardization of reporting among member
companies, with 82% of members producing
corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports and
79% now using IPIECA reporting guidance
http://www.ipieca.org/our-work/sustainability-reporting/member-sustainability-reports/
Ocean Renewable Energy Action Coalition
(OREAC) N/A
Launched in early 2020, the OREAC has a focus on
sustainable development of ocean-based
renewable energy and mitigating the effects of
climate change. OREAC includes 3 of the Ocean
100 companies
First report and roadmap to 2050 to be launched
in late 2020
https://gwec.net/oreac-1400-gw-of-offshore-wind-is-possible-by-2050-and-will-be-key-for-green-recovery/
Seafood Business for Ocean Stewardship (SeaBOS)
www.seabos.org
Launched in 2016, SeaBOS is a science-business
initiative including 10 of the world’s largest
seafood companies with commitments to
leading a global transformation toward ocean
stewardship. SeaBOS includes 6 of the Ocean
100 companies
Set of 10 public commitments, including
time-bound goals, and establishment of six task
forces focused on addressing harmful practices
within the seafood industry
https://seabos.org/science/
Sustainable Shipping Initiative (SSI)
www.ssi2040.org
Established in 2011, the SSI is a multi-stakeholder
initiative aimed at improving sustainability in
the shipping industry across social,
environmental, and economic dimensions. SSI
includes 1 of the Ocean 100 companies
Publication in 2011 of “Vision 2040” and associated
roadmap to achieve a sustainable shipping
industry, and covering energy efficiency, labor
rights, enabling finance and policy, and other
issues
https://www.ssi2040.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/SSI_Vision_doc_web.pdf
United Nations Global Compact—Action Platform
for Sustainable Ocean Business
www.unglobalcompact.org/take-action/ocean
Established in 2018, this UN Global Compact
Action Platform brings together a group of
leading actors from business, academia, and
governments to advance progress toward
achieving the SDGs. The Platform includes 6 of
the Ocean 100 companies
Ten-year roadmap of “critical ambitions” published
in 2020 as “Ocean Stewardship 2030” report
https://unglobalcompact.org/library/5742
World Ocean Council (WOC)
www.oceancouncil.org
Established in 2008, the WOC is a global
cross-sectoral industry leadership alliance
focused on achieving ocean stewardship and
“corporate ocean responsibility.” The WOC
includes 4 of the Ocean 100 companies
Convening of annual “Sustainable Ocean Summit”
and other activities including the development
of regional ocean councils and a Young Ocean
Professionals initiative
https://www.oceancouncil.org/global-issues-platforms/cross-cutting-issues/