Table 2 Prominent green clubs with a focus on promoting sustainable ocean business.

InitiativeDescriptionExamples of reported impacts
Association of Responsible Krill Fishers (ARK)
Established in 2012, ARK brings together
companies engaged in Antarctic krill fishing to
ensure the long-term sustainability of the
fishery and its dependent predators. ARK
includes 1 of the Ocean 100 companies
Establishment of three voluntary restricted zones
and 100% compliance by fleets during the
2019/2020 season
Global Salmon Initiative (GSI)
Established in 2013, the GSI is a leadership
initiative situated at CEO-level that aims to
promote sustainable salmon production while
minimizing its carbon footprint. GSI includes 2
of the Ocean 100 companies
Commitment by members to 100% certification of
farms by Aquaculture Stewardship Council.
Growth from 0% in 2013 to 65% of production
in 2020
Established in 1974, IPIECA is the only global
association of upstream and downstream oil
and gas industry companies, with a focus on
improving environmental and social
performance. IPIECA includes 24 of the Ocean
100 companies
Standardization of reporting among member
companies, with 82% of members producing
corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports and
79% now using IPIECA reporting guidance
Ocean Renewable Energy Action Coalition
Launched in early 2020, the OREAC has a focus on
sustainable development of ocean-based
renewable energy and mitigating the effects of
climate change. OREAC includes 3 of the Ocean
100 companies
First report and roadmap to 2050 to be launched
in late 2020
Seafood Business for Ocean Stewardship (SeaBOS)
Launched in 2016, SeaBOS is a science-business
initiative including 10 of the world’s largest
seafood companies with commitments to
leading a global transformation toward ocean
stewardship. SeaBOS includes 6 of the Ocean
100 companies
Set of 10 public commitments, including
time-bound goals, and establishment of six task
forces focused on addressing harmful practices
within the seafood industry
Sustainable Shipping Initiative (SSI)
Established in 2011, the SSI is a multi-stakeholder
initiative aimed at improving sustainability in
the shipping industry across social,
environmental, and economic dimensions. SSI
includes 1 of the Ocean 100 companies
Publication in 2011 of “Vision 2040” and associated
roadmap to achieve a sustainable shipping
industry, and covering energy efficiency, labor
rights, enabling finance and policy, and other
United Nations Global Compact—Action Platform
for Sustainable Ocean Business
Established in 2018, this UN Global Compact
Action Platform brings together a group of
leading actors from business, academia, and
governments to advance progress toward
achieving the SDGs. The Platform includes 6 of
the Ocean 100 companies
Ten-year roadmap of “critical ambitions” published
in 2020 as “Ocean Stewardship 2030” report
World Ocean Council (WOC)
Established in 2008, the WOC is a global
cross-sectoral industry leadership alliance
focused on achieving ocean stewardship and
“corporate ocean responsibility.” The WOC
includes 4 of the Ocean 100 companies
Convening of annual “Sustainable Ocean Summit”
and other activities including the development
of regional ocean councils and a Young Ocean
Professionals initiative